Monday, September 30, 2019

Anwar Sadats Domestic and Foreign Policies were from 1970 to 1981 Essay

The ‘Hero of the Crossing’, Anwar Sadat undoubtedly bought pride and peace to his fellow Egyptians after the rule of Nasser’s defeat and humiliation to his socialist country. His pragmatic view on the way Egypt should be ruled bought him success and failures in both the foreign and domestic policies, despite his premature death in 1981. Some saw the ‘heroic face’ of Egypt as a traitor to Pan Arabism and all that the surviving Nasserites fought for. But it cannot be denied that he placed Egypt’s foot firmly through the door of peace with the area surrounding them and internationally through his spectacular, radical commitments to making peace with Israel, following the legendary Camp David accords. Firstly, Sadat’s main aim with his foreign policies was to gain permanent peace with Israel, and on the 17th September 1978, he set it in stone at Camp David. On this date, Sadat took a bold, historic step towards peace with Israel – one which turned the back on the period of Pan Arabism that went before him it marked the beginning of the Middle East peace process, one which still holes peace between the two nations today, far beyond his reign. Sadat wanted to gain permanent peace with Israel to cut military costs and therefore boost their economy. Although Camp David had seen a momentous agreement between two very different nations, with a background of war and unrest, relations with other Arab states had detiriated. Sadat knew that bringing Palestinian problems to the table at Camp David would make Israel less likely to promise any sort of peace deal. Therefore, many states in the Middle East didn’t look too kindly upon Sadat due to the feeling of Pan Arabism, thinking he was ‘back-stabbing’ the theory. But, looking back at the concept around that time, it was relatively dead as it was fundamentally unrealistic due to the greed and selfishness still apparent in each nation. Consequently, Sadat’s peace aims were successful and the argument with the Middle East would have expired by the Camp David accords. Sadat was also the first Arab leader to enter into Jerusalem to talk about peace deals with the country. As the first person to enter into the Holy Land, he lost a lot of followers also, but his pragmatic ways taught him that making peace with Israel would cut down military costs tremendously as they would never have a war in the near future. It is clear to see that the extended effort that Sadat put into making strong bonds with Israel at the time did pay off as to this day there has been no unrest between the two countries to the current day, showing that his aim to gain permanent peace with Israel was met and he was extremely successful as later on he received a Nobel Peace Prize as being recognised internationally as making troubles end in the Middle East, troubles which Sadat thought were unnecessary. The second aim of Sadat was to improve the economic state of his country through gaining strong relations with the US and losing links with the USSR. He had to get out of Nasser’s shadow and gain independence for his country. He was very forward- thinking compared to the previous leader. He wanted to boost the economy in Egypt and he was looking towards the West for the helping hand with his domestic problem. Firstly, he expelled his Soviet advisors in 1972, which received high praise from the West. He knew that with the US’s greatest enemy out of the country, and then they would be prepared to help them out financially. His gamble finally paid off for Sadat as they eventually became one of the largest recipitants of foreign aid from the US. Sadat’s’ country could finally have private investment from the biggest nation of the world and therefore be at the foreground in the Middle East that no other country would wish to fight as they had such strong help. These investments also led to greater links with Israel as the US were both their allies now and therefore there would be no need to go to war and spend surplus amounts of their money on the military. Sadat’s domestic policy for the economy also introduced large changes to the country as he tried to step out of Nasser’s shadow once again. Sadat’s mind-set was completely different to that of Nasser, as he strived for private foreign investment and controlling inflation through fixing prices. This meant that Sadat could be sure there would be no higher wage demands and that the economy was more predictable, liberalising Egypt’s economy for the better, or so he thought. In the last years of his reign, there were a series of ‘Bread Riots’ protesting against his economic liberalisation, through the public out roar to Sadat’s lifting of prices led to his government having to take control of the prices – reversing themselves. Sadat’s economic domestic policy was very unpopular with the majority of the public – especially the Nasserites. Although there was a lot of public unrest at the time, the rich Egyptians were in favour as they were benefitting from his rule. They lapped up the foreign investment as the lack of control on basics such as bread did not affect them as much. US investment as well made lives for the rich under Sadat’s rule very good, but there was left beneath them a very widening gap between them and the poor. It cannot be disagreed that Sadat was not a large change in the regular leadership style of the Arab states in the Middle East. The greed, Pan Arabism and selfishness were not apparent in the leader as he strived for peace with Israel and other countries, boosting the economy and making greater links with the western world – all things which were unheard of in the Middle East at the time. Many people did not follow his new way of thinking, the pragmatic style did not agree with them, or was it that perhaps they were not ready for him? And that Nasser had such a large influence on the country that they were indoctrinated in a singular way of thinking, with no room left for different out looks on leadership. Evidence suggests that Sadat was not a failure, he just followed someone with such a great sway on the country that he could not lead without riots and rebellions as they did not want change. The ‘Hero of the Crossing’ was a great leader with the interests of Egypt at heart, and if only his life wasn’t cut tragically short, there could have been plenty more he could have done for the area as a whole. Â  

Sunday, September 29, 2019

How do The Odyssey and The Crucible use the hero in order to explore the concerns of their times?

The concept of what constitutes a hero varies according to the values, culture, context and setting of the society in question. Homer in his epic poem The Odyssey and Arthur Miller in The Crucible through the portrayal of the hero's in their texts; Odysseus and John Proctor, reflect the values of the time in which the text was set but more importantly provide a social commentary on the context of the texts. Both looking to the past to provide answers and draw parallels with the present. The Odyssey was written approximately in 700 BC and was set in twelfth century BC, in what was known as the Bronze Age. The Greeks believed that this earlier period was a more glorious and sublime age, when Gods still frequented the Earth and heroic, godlike mortals with superhuman attributes populated Greece. The Odyssey is episodic in nature and in many ways consisted of nation building myths which were unifying and drew on what was common in Greek culture by detailing the exploits of the classical archetypal Greek hero, Odysseus. Essentially it is an epic tale in which the wicked are destroyed, right prevails, and the family is reunited. On the other hand, The Crucible was written in the early 1950's in America and is set in 1692 in Salem, a small town in colonial Massachusetts. It follows the witch-hunts of 1692 which began when several young girls were stricken with an illness characterized by symptoms of hallucinations and seizures, which were ascribed to witchcraft. This led to the eventual execution of thirty individuals for the crime of witchcraft. They were tried and convicted in an atmosphere of moral absolutism through which Miller alludes to the events which took place in the 1950's before the House of Un-American Activities Committee in Washington. The Crucible can be viewed as allegorical text not for anti-communism, or as a faithful account of the Salem trials, but as a powerful timeless description of how intolerance and hysteria can intersect and tear a community apart. Furthermore, in contrast with Odysseus, John Proctor is a tragic hero, who would rather die then confess and lived with a marred name. This idea of nobility is inseparable from the tragedy genre. Tragedy in many ways enlightens, in that it points the heroic finger at the enemy of a man's freedom. The quest for freedom is the quality in the tragedy which exalts. Both texts are framed by religious imagery. In The Odyssey Odysseus does not question the power of the Gods and in many ways Homers text can be viewed as a moral lesson, through the omnipresent nature of the god's as they guide the wandering hero home. This reflects the Greek notion that the gods exercise absolute power over the mortal world. In the poem mortals are constantly making sacrifices to the gods to earn their favour. Conversely, offending the gods creates immense problems as is illustrated through Poseidon's grudge against Odysseus for blinding his son Polyphemos. Moreover, it is only through Athena's guidance throughout the text that Odysseus can survive his dangerous adventures. This distinguishes an important point as it reiterates not only the all-powerful nature of the gods but also introduces the idea that if Odysseus the hero cannot survive without guidance from the gods then the rest of the members of society must accept their fate as lying in the hands of the gods. What must also be noted however are the characteristics of the gods, which were a mixture of magical, immortal powers and basic human instincts, the gods were not perfect. Through this portrayal of the gods in the text Homer presents a more glorious time in Greek culture in a time when Greece was only a shadow of its former greatness. This however varies in The Crucible which is set in a theocratic society, in which church and state are one and the religion practised was very austere form of Protestantism known as Puritanism. In this form of society there is no room for deviation from social norms, since any individual whose private life does not conform to the established moral laws presents a threat not only to society but also to the rule of God: â€Å"You must understand, sir, that a person is either with this court or he must be counted against it, there be no road between†. John Proctor challenges this religious identity of time and shows how man has used god to manipulate and control individuals and it is ultimately his choice not to confess to witchcraft, which is a true religious and personal stance. In this way The Crucible can be viewed a symbolic of the paranoia of the communism which pervaded America in the 1950s. Several parallels existed between the witch hunts of 1692 and the House Un-American Activities Committee's rooting out of suspected communists. As with the alleged witches of Salem, suspected Communists were encouraged to confess their crimes and to â€Å"name names,† identifying others sympathetic to their radical cause. Miller through the actions of the hero Proctor foregrounds the McCarthyist excesses, which wronged many innocents, making a strong political statement. Furthermore, both Odysseus and Proctor are flawed and fallible and both of them fall into the seductive charms of the ‘seductresses' as is portrayed in the texts. Women are presented as either ‘sainted virgins'; Elizabeth and Penelope or ‘seductresses'; Abigail and Calypso this dichotomy represents the patriarchal structures of the context of the texts. Moreover the texts also highlight the dangers of giving women power and of female sexual potency. Odysseus' infidelity when he is trapped by Calypso serves to reflect gender roles and the double standard in Greek society. Homer does not invite the responder to view Odysseus' infidelity with any disdain or disapproval: â€Å"withdrawing into the cavern's deep recesses, long in each others arms they lost themselves in love† (#250-51). It is somehow acceptable for Odysseus to sleep with another woman, while Penelope is represented as morally dubious for allowing the suitors to remain in the house. It is only Calypso who challenges these gender roles: â€Å"You unrivalled lords of jealously/ scandalized when goddess sleep with mortals†¦ † (#131-32). While Homer portrays these sexist views, he also through Calypso's dialogue brings to attention the double standards of the society and more importantly introduces a new idea which may have been viewed as subversive in Greek culture at the time. On the other hand in The Crucible, John Proctor as the play's tragic hero is honest, upright and blunt spoken, Proctor is a good man however his fatal flaw is his lust for Abigail Williams which leads to their affair. Proctor is very self-critical and this in a way reflects how his moral code is a product of the society in which he exists: â€Å"But I will cut my hand off before I'll ever reach for you again†. Once the trials begin, Proctor realizes that he can stop Abigail's rampage through Salem but only if he confesses to this adultery. This highlights how the hero must face a series of trials and tribulations in order to be redeemed, in Proctor's case these are more physiological battles whereas Odysseus faces more physical challenges. This illustrates the way in which the different contexts result in the formation of varying hero's reflecting the values of that particular society. Finally, Arthur Miller once said: â€Å"Nobody wants to be a hero†¦ but in every man there is something he cannot give up and still remain himself†¦ If he gives that up, he becomes a different man, not himself†¦ It is Proctor's self-critical nature which distinguishes him because he does not set out to be a hero. Normally he would not be considered a saintly individual, and he has not great eagerness to be a martyr due to his underlying guilt at his infidelity, which in turn he projects on Elizabeth: â€Å"I do not judge you. The magistrate sits in your heart that judges you. † Nevertheless when put to the final test, the meaning here of ‘crucible', he will go to his death rather than irrevocably compromise his integrity. Through his representation of Proctor as the tragic hero Miller creates a new post-modern ideology of the hero in which the hero is not extraordinary physically or mentally but rather what is heroic is the individual who stands by his personal principals, he does not set out to be the hero but rather the situation merely reveals the hero within. This notion explores the concerns of 1950 America in which the hero's were not the McCarthyist's as it might seem on outward examination but rather those who only through their personal actions transpired to be essentially heroic. In conclusion, The Odyssey and The Crucible through the representation of the hero in text foreground the concerns of their times. The texts have revealed to me that what constitutes the hero varying according to context and setting and can help us gain further insight into the concerns of the society in question. Essentially the characteristics, which form the hero, are fluid subject to the values and culture of the times.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Consumer law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 2

Consumer law - Essay Example The importer of a product into any member state of the European Union may also be considered as a producer under the said directive.2 However, where the producer cannot be known or identified, the supplier of such a product is treated under the directive as the producer unless the identity of the producer or the one supplying the product can be identified by him.3 In the case at bar, if the buyer would identify specifically the manufacturer of Aquawash-09 in Korea, such manufacturer may be made liable under the directive. If not, the importer of such washing machine, specifically, Heinz which is a German Company, can be made liable under the EC directive. The buyer can therefore claim against the manufacturer, the supplier or both under the EC directive. Furthermore, under the EC directive, a defect in a product exists if the so-called objective test is established which includes â€Å"either or both the cost-risk analysis and the consumer’s expectation of safety.†4 A product is considered as defective under the EC directive if such product does not make available the safety which any person could â€Å"reasonably entitled to expect,† taking into account the following: â€Å"the presentation of the product, the use to which the product could reasonably be expected to be put, and the time when the product was put into circulation.†5 Defect may also be present in the design or the manufacturing of the product, in the failure to warn, in the instructions, and in the â€Å"developmental defects.†6 If then the product does not provide the level of safety which is expected by the consumer, it would then be considered as defective under the directive even though it functions under the designed specificati on.7 In the case at bar, the washing machine then may certainly be considered as defective not only because it did not function properly but because it does not provide for the level of safety reasonably expected from the product, as

Friday, September 27, 2019

Considering Censorship Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Considering Censorship - Essay Example The level of censorship imposed or removed by the governing authority depends upon what it considers appropriate for governance in such areas. The rationale for censorship may vary from time to time depending upon the demands of circumstances, one’s level of understanding and its implications. The reactions to censorship vary from individual to individual. The constitution of the most liberal and democratic countries have provisions for imposing censorship as it becomes a powerful controlling weapon in the hands of the governing authority. Censorship is also like the double-edged sword. Chances of creating unintended, self-inflicted injuries may occur if the situation or the mood of the people is misjudged and unwanted censorship is imposed on their aspirations. The ruler can use censorship as a weapon on some for all time or for all for some time, but not all for all time! History provides enough examples where the pursuers of the hard core policies of censorship are met with tragic end, thus no nation has ever prospered on a permanent footing on hard rules of censorship to govern people. Does censorship concern only the life, living and activities related to human beings? Are the plant and animal kingdom also victims of censorship? I am posted as a Captain in a missile base that concerns the country’s security.

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Macroeconomics Inflation and Unemployment Exchange Rate and Open Term Paper

Macroeconomics Inflation and Unemployment Exchange Rate and Open Economy - Term Paper Example The national output per head is assumed to represent the standard of living. The total national output is divided by the number of people in a nation. An increase in the national income per capita is a representation of an improvement in the standards of living in a country (Sowell, 13). This is because it means the national output or income is increasing while the population is constant. More is given out in terms of production by the same number of people in a nation that is, holding all other factors constant (Miller, 2011). One challenge in using national income statistics to measure and compare living standards of people in different nations is that there is no common currency .Different nations use different currency thus national income is hard to compare across different nations. The dollar or the euro is however used in most cases which involves converting all data in a common measure (Riley, 2006). The purchasing power of the dollar or Euro is different in different nations so there many adjustments have to be made to cater for differences in average costs of goods and services in different countries (Sowell, 2000). Another challenge is GPD usage in representation of living standards, it only focus on economical aspects; other important aspects of life cannot be expressed in national income data. ... This will reflect an improvement in output yet loss of leisure hours is a decrease in standard of life. There could be imbalances between consumption and investment which is not recognized while computing the national income and output statistics. The net disposable income of an individual may seem to increase after a change in spending priorities. Over consumption may mean a nation’s economy will suffer instability in the long term (Riley, 2006). Life expectancy changes can not be represented in the GPD yet it is a representation of standards of living. Assigning a value on the life of people is hard thus; reduction in mortality rates is not recognized in GPD. The government in open economies will regulate exports and imports and government spending when stimulating the economy of a nation to maintain balance of payments. 16-5 Frictional unemployment is the unemployment of skilled people with capability to work because there changing jobs to seek better one thus there are vol untarily unemployed. People competing schools also form part of the frictional unemployment statistics because there are skilled. Frictional unemployment is important in an economy because it makes it possible for worker employee to move to other jobs that they like better and the employers are able to get more suited employee. In an economy, frictional unemployment brings a balance between supply and demand of labor in the labor market (Maynard, 2009). So long as there are people leaving their current job to search for better ones and other leaving schools to join the employment seeking people, frictional unemployment will always be present. People quit jobs due to different reasons like disagreements, after relocating; acquiring more skills, family issues

Is It Ever Ok to Lie, Steals or Break One's Promises Essay

Is It Ever Ok to Lie, Steals or Break One's Promises - Essay Example Kantian ethics is in concordance with the deontological moral theory. Deontological theories propose that whether an action is right or wrong is not determined by the consequences of the action, but rather on whether the action is a fulfillment of one’s duty. There are two questions that guide Kantian ethics one is whether one can propose that everyone acts as he or she has acted and whether one’s actions respect the goals of human beings apart from serving personal interests. Agreement with both questionsis interpreted as moral correctness according toKantian ethics (Rachaels & Rachaels, 2011). According to Kant, the categorical imperative is the principle that determines the morality of an action. A categorical imperative refers to an unconditional command. The categorical imperative that one cannot lie, steal, or break a promise means that one cannot do any of these things if they serve personal interests. Kant uses categorical imperatives as the guiding principles because they are commands that one cannot opt out of or claim that they do not apply to them. Kant proposes that the first formula of universal law is that one should only act on that maxim of which he or she would will that it becomes a universal law(Rachaels & Rachaels, 2011). According to Kant, it is not permissible to lie, steal, or break a promise because these acts fail to fulfill the first formula, of universal law since this would be self-defeating. Since these acts are only beneficial to the individual when they are made an exception to the individual,then they cannot be made universal laws (Rachaels & Rachaels, 2011). If breaking of promises were made a universal law, then no one would make promises anymore since it would be common knowledge that promises do not mean anything. Since one benefits from breaking promises which would no longer be made, then it means that breaking a promise is wrong. Kantian ethics differs from utilitarianism in

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Public Pension Funds Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Public Pension Funds - Assignment Example Milliman’s conclusion that the reports are less well funded than what is reported in their internal reports comes from the disparity that it ascertained after conducting a private audit which put the funding around 68 percent while own reports usually report a funding of about 75 percent. The report has a slight difference from other recently published ones because of the approach that was used in it. Despite the slight difference, this could translate to a massive figure when looked at generally. Â  Hawai represents an economy requiring delicate leadership acumen to satisfy the needs of its citizenry. Teachers are part of the workforce who are feeling the brunt of harsh economic times. Salary cuts were imposed on teacher’s salary to cater for a deficit that the current governor, Neil Abercrombie, was left for in the budget. The deficit in the budget is put to be over a billion dollars. On coming to office, Abercrombie did away with the collective bargaining contract which had previously accorded the teachers a bargaining power. In Indiana, the collective bargaining was lost in 2005. Changes have occurred since then that have neither eased their situation nor been of much help.

Monday, September 23, 2019

Sustainable Enterprise Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Sustainable Enterprise - Assignment Example There are important reasons why this could be substantially true. Monsanto was able to make a strong point that agriculture is a remarkable sustainability driver in the 21st century. The reasons are simple. There are continuing problems about decreasing yield in agriculture, population and income growth, urbanization and even the environment in general which face the society in reality. In the case of environment for instance, as a chemical company, Monsanto has considerable ideas regarding on how chemicals could create diversified environmental pollutions. Applying the concept of sustainability, Monsanto was finally able to create genetically engineered plants which have resistance to pests and diseases, which would make application of chemicals in farming obsolete in the future. In general, Monsanto created a need out of the ongoing reality in the world and from that a significant business surfaced which was in a form of life science strategy of food, health and hope. For some Europeans, genetically modified foods or plants are not actually integral components of exact science. In other words, they are quite hesitant about the issue of safety and control regarding on foods or plants that have undergone the process of genetic engineering in the field of biotechnology. Europeans are not actually oblivious about the significant promises of genetic engineering and biotechnology. However, European backlash is just a reminder that people should also consider the issue of safety and control. After all, integrating genetic materials with the original plant is not the usual or natural process of food production, so probable issues of safety are what the Europeans would like to emphasize, prior to acceptance of Monsanto’s life science strategy of food, health and hope. However, in developing world, concerns were on feeding a hungry stomach, ensuring high production or yield and advancement in agriculture. In other words, compared to safety

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Relationship between Mind and Body Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Relationship between Mind and Body - Essay Example Similarly, the paper discusses whether one is more significant than the other is in a human life. Descartes talks about a possible existence of material outside God and the Self. Accordingly, the author holds that the existence of such objects is only possible because God creates them. Therefore, the author postulates that the materials exist because they relate to pure mathematics. It because Descartes believes that God makes what he thinks in the way it is. Similarly, nothing is impossible for God to create unless someone does not understand a thing (Descartes, Meditation VI: about the existence of Material things from the Body). Consequently, after discovering the possibility of the existence of the objects, the author then turns to the presence of mental pictures as evidence. Therefore, he distinguishes perception and imagination. Accordingly, he asserts that creativity refers to the capacity of knowledge to the body that is immediately present to it, without conception or intellection (Descartes, Meditations, 6), which prevails as a mental image. Understanding is not automatically a picture. He applies an example, that when he has a mental image of a triangle, he does not just perceive it to be a figure with three lines; he says he looks at the lines as if they were present to the mental eye. Therefore, that is what Descartes calls a mental picture. Descartes gives priority to the mind than the body. It is because the mind controls the body. In other words, the body only responds to whatever the mind perceives, conceives, and accepts as reality.  

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Overcoming Resistance to Change Essay Example for Free

Overcoming Resistance to Change Essay Overcoming Resistance Resistance is a normal and a perfectly natural reaction to change. Each person has their own amount they can take, but the reasons behind why employees resist in the first place may be surprising. According to these experts, the fear of moving into an unknown future state creates anxiety and stress, even if the current state is painful (Eroke, 2013). A complete understanding of the unique ways that resistance can be apparent is still needed because resistance to change has been acknowledged as an organizational difficulty for many years. If and when employees react to change in different ways, and if discrepancies in response result in different outcomes, identification of those expressions of resistance is a necessary step in the growth and execution of valuable change management strategies. After summarizing internal and external factors contributing to resistance to change, we will look at an example of this, identify the cause and develop a plan to overcome resistance. Internal and External Factors Contributing to Resistance to Change While internal and external factors certainly add to change responses, individuals can react more negatively to change than do others, regardless of the type of change. Individuals oppose beginning and completing self changing efforts, even when change is enviable or necessary. The interactions of these factors suggest inconsistency in individual behaviors, such that indefinite situations are most likely to bring to mind articulated perceptions, beliefs, behaviors, and attitudes. W hile global personality tests are probably not helpful in answering specific questions; an evaluation of outcome dispositions may capitulate greater projecting capability. There is little proof that points to individual disparities inclination to resist change. Conflict is stirred up by a variety of factors that include the environment, personalities; prejudices, appearances, etc. However, the inquiry of which individuals take action in what way, to which change situations, has not been sufficiently answered. The materializations of â€Å"resistance responses† within people and situations must be comprehended to allow management the opportunity to decide which plan can efficiently lessen resistance and if diverse strategies increase or decrease responses. An objective in the study of resistance is to identify individual responses to assist in forecasting probable variables. The more acquainted you are with your staff, the easier it will be to identify, assess, monitor, maintain, and execute change when needed. Example of Resistance to Change Based on Internal and External Factors At times employees felt they were being required to do more with less, or do more for the same pay which when this is the case, there is a huge resistance. Very rarely do you find good people that will go above and beyond for someone else or their company. In the restaurant business there are always tasks that need attention. There was a saying at one job â€Å"if you have time to lean, you have time to clean†. It is not all about serving food to guests and getting tipped for it. When someone does not show up for their shift, then that persons responsibilities are divided out amongst everyone. And when one of them is being asked to do side work that is not theirs, while getting paid such a low wage, there is not a positive reaction to say the least. As a waitress or server at most places, you only make 2-3 dollars an hour so when restaurant is slow and they do not make enough money to barely earn over minim um wage, it is extremely challenging to motivate them into doing manual labor for that amount of pay. Specifically, the most recent restaurant I managed, I relied heavily on the breakfast buffet and maintaining it during business hours as well as when we were closed. This buffet was important because most of the VIP rewards members only came for breakfast and their impression of the appearance, temperatures, and quality are being evaluated to possibly be turned in on comment card to corporate. Once this survey is completed online, these scores are then developed into a daily, monthly, and annual report that rates us on each department separately. A bad score decreases the points as a whole, makes the entire team look bad to corporate, and bad reviews can be seen by anyone, which can keep business from coming in and that will drop revenue. For some reason, we were not capable of securing this position longer than a few weeks which then it was being taken care of by any of the staff or management if they had a minute to help stock or clean it. This obviously is not going to be consistent for guests, appears disorganized or short staffed, and is a dangerous health hazard if someone is not taking temps every thirty minutes. Every single time someone did not show up to set up buffet, the staff and management jumped in to help, but it was like pulling teeth to get anyone to step in and do this job. Out of pure self interest each one of them would voice their opinion about how they do not make enough to do someone else’s job and it was not their job or they did not sign up for this. Resistance is an inevitable response to any major change. Individuals naturally rush to defend the status quo if they feel their security or status is threatened (Bolognese, 2002). I understand it is not their faults that it kept getting abandoned, but I also know how to be reasonable and work as a team. Most people are uncomfortable with change and will resist without giving much thought. Aside from self interest, Baack (2012) says, â€Å"differing assessments of the need for change occur whenemployees do not view a change as necessary, because managers and employees do not see eye to eye on the nature of the issue. Th ose with a low tolerance for change also tend to be resistant. It was challenging for everyone involved because most of them did not understand the nature or reason behind just doing what is asked of you regardless of how it may or may not affect you. The few that had been there many years were the first to help, but also the first to resist. They were all for customer service, pride in their company, and covering for someone as long as they were getting the credit. There were only a couple of employees who were willing to help, go out of their way, without expecting anything in return and those are the ones that were rewarded. Cause of Resistance Resistance will come in many dissimilar shapes and sizes, depending on your precise need. The cause for resistance can come from a variety of reasons, but the main cause behind this particular resistance was this position was not paid enough for the responsibilities that came with the position. Also, the labor involved was far more extensive than any other position in that department. Perhaps some other another reason may be because the buffet person was the low man on the totem pole, all by his lonesome, and getting stiffed by his or her own coworkers. This position was separated as far as opening and closing duties and had many items that contributed to the set up and break down which were placed in other parts of restaurant. The buffet person was usually not the person that â€Å"fit in† and almost always within a short period of time, they would request to be moved or they would find a different company to work for. Planned Approach for Overcoming Resistance Costs of training, risky score-cards, high turnover, unhappy guests and employees are enough of a reason to act on changing the way things have been failing. Upper management can determine who would be the best at changing this situation and making it a positive one that they can lead. Someone has to stand up and be responsible for holding people and themselves accountable and for this change to take place. Address the issue, acknowledge the conflict to employees and thank them for taking on extra work, but also engage with them in brainstorming to see if they may have something creative or valuable to assist in conquering the resistance. Once a new reasonable rate of pay has been distinguished, then a new set of responsibilities can be developed and split with the kitchen. There needs to be some way to mingle the two departments, which are separated by a line, so that this position is â€Å"included† with everyone else. Also, provide gift cards or free meals for adapting to c hange and moving forward during process. Set a goal for ninety days out to reevaluate, make transitions or changes and explain how the pieces fit together as a whole. Additional areas of resistance may surface so it is vital to recognize probable resistance points, as your development execution progresses. No matter which approach is used, managers should remember that change is often an unsettling process (Baack, 2012). Obtaining the preferred information to improve employees understanding of the organizations need for change is also one of the most significant steps in flourishing resistance management. A serious contemplation concerning the customization of your resistance management activities is relied upon the size of the change and the characteristics of the organization. When resistance has resulted in productivity loss and exhausted time and resources, it can be intimidating for the staff to rely solely on reactive procedures. Once the new changes have been implemented, closely maintained

Friday, September 20, 2019

Video rental and sales system

Video rental and sales system A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the University of Greenwichs Bsc (Hons) Software Engineering Abstract In the current business functions, an especially rental resource is on of the main challenging part. So that, utilising the resources that are implemented by the companies. The business processes are the major task according to the project budget as well as time limitation. So that software solutions those managing and controlling the functions has to be analysed in a proper way to obtain the successful use of them. The report illustrate about the project that analyse the problem of renting and how to gain the solution for those procedures. Video rental and sales is a complete software solution for controlling and managing rentals of customers. This research is all about controlling and managing resources for everyday rentals. Based on the client needs the resources could be rented. An excellent desktop application has been processed and implemented in order to manage that resource that is currently used by the video rental system. This system solution has been implemented using the technologies of front-end Microsoft Vb.Net and back end SQL Server. Preface This thesis is partial fulfilment of university of the Greenwich undergraduate programme, prepared and submitted by me. This software project helps me a lot to gain knowledge in different parts such as software design and development.   During this project research and development period, I get the clear understanding, how these software engineering principals, technologies can be applied in real time projects. This project approach as a practical way in all stages of software development and make me clear in every stages that software engineering techniques could be applicable.    I am a software engineering student. In this case, this project is closely related to my programme of study and other subjects. My current study is helps me each stage of this project such as system analysis, designing, coding, testing, implementing, Etc, to a develop a final solution for this business. I use MicrosoftVb.Net programming language in order to develop the proposed system. I implemented desktop application the help with Microsoft.net framework based on the customer requests. Moreover this project gives some ideas to access the a range of software engineering techniques and tools for the successful project. Acknowledgements This work carried out for this project would not have been a success without the good guidance a given to me by various people and various time. There are many people helped me. First, special thanks to my project Supervisor Mr. Alexander M. Fedorec and Second Marker. Who helped me in the literature review part and guide me to get the Approval for the Ethical Research application. His comments and guidance helps me to make this report according to a professional standard. My thanks to all the lecturers and University staffs specially library staffs who guide me to get good online journals from the Student portal. In addition, thanks to the authors of articles and magazines which are really helps to my final Document. At last, I wish to thank my Colleagues, their reviews and proof reading about my project helps me to do   more reliable and useful last time. 1 Introduction 1.1 Background Information At present world, widely the uses of software solutions for the companies are considerably increased. The reason is they might get whole solution for their entire services in a single software application rather than doing sub services. It will save lots of money, time and human resources, etc. Therefore most of companies are likes to computerize for their business operations. The melodius company Current situation is they do not have any improved technology. They are spending a lots money, time consuming, extra workers, etc to run their business operations. As a result of these the melodius company has decided to computerize their business. They are trying to make a new revolution in the video rental market. 1.2 Overview The melodius video rental (pvt) Ltd started its business operations as a small size in 2000.And gradually extend out their business to length and breath. Video rental main purpose is renting and selling Video DVDs, Audio CDs, etc. Purchase the products from the supplier and Allocates the products (CDs, DVDs) for sales and rental is the main area of concern for this company. Each staff of the company from top level to bottom level has a typical, free and unique role to play for their company needs. If we have a look in the project proposal ,the main aim of this project is carry out a deep investigation about rental, sales operations and resources allocation for an integrated Movie rental and sales system. The proposed software package gives some improved facilities to the Staffs and the users To run their business smoothly. This could be an entire solution for movie rental and sales functions problems. According the company needs operations are able to divide in to two main types. Such as Sales and Rental. At present the company keeps all the paperworks, documents in manual form. The Following modules are currently in process in the system, Member, Employee, Supplier, Sales, Rental, Payment, product. These existing operations are linked to each other of the modules. Due to these reasons, management faces lots of difficulty. Generally, the overall existing system is slow and unsystematic. The current system and those issues have driven to the top management (Owner of the business) in order to choose for an alternative option. That will enable the company to improve its operations and good progress. There for the management has decided to computerize their existing manual operations. Here my duties and responsibility was to develop a video rental system and sought out these kinds of administration problems, give freedom to the management level people and let them do their central part activities. Moreover, giving an excellent customer service and user friendly product. 1.3 Scope of the project At present in real world, the new technologies are developed in every field. According to these changes, we have to adjust our business activities. This project overall target was design an excellent desktop application and implement for the melodius video company. This helps a lot to the Management and the staff to work for this company freely and pleasurably. The main purpose of this project creates a user friendly, unique and modern software package. With higher security facility (User levels, Password encryption). Make easier to use the forms with navigate Buttons. User could feel free and comfortable when he uses the system. 1.4 Aims and Objectives When the project was begun its cover the whole business operations and benefits of the system. In order to achieve these benefits a few objectives were initialized. Such objectives are. A deep investigation about the existing manual system and their accessible process measurements. Write   a system analysis report based on the system requirements Understand the requirements and the principles when developing a software application Design and develop a video rental system using software engineering techniques. Testing the video rental system using available accessible data. Evaluate the final product and think about new ideas to improve further development. 1.5 Project Management Methodology The successfulness of the project is depends on the selection of the technology, tools and how we are applied in the project. If we take our project, it was a long-term project and its takes more than six months time. The traditional waterfall model is most suitable for long time projects. According this project the waterfall model is most suitable. The following reasons are easy to identify the requirements that enable to develop the system is In. We require a life cycle system. That is before being the system; the requirements are studied through the interview. It is not need to make the changes in the system and it is not advisable while creating the system or modifies the system. Hence since the steps to create this system is in co-ordination with the waterfall model. Therefore I have chosen this waterfall model. Which is follows. The Waterfall Model Each stage related into the next Feedback in the Waterfall Model The Advantages of using waterfall model is By far the most commonly used approach up to now. The waterfall model underpins all the most widely used methods. The stages are clear-cut. The innovative ideas were behind that documents are produced at each stage Consequently preferred by managers as easy to manage. All research and design done before coding starts, it means better quality program design. Well suited for developing stable and well understood computer-based applications. Feasibility study This feasibility study main aim is depth analysis and decides the melodius video rental company and about its businesses operations whether it will be operationally, financially or technically feasible to develop the software product. These studies involve analysis of current issues and gather the relevant informations. Here I have selected three important types of studies for measure the system success as the operational feasibility, technical feasibility, and economical feasibility. Operational feasibility The operational feasibility is discuses about the company performance, information, economy and control. 1. The management is not happy with existing the manual system. Because that is very slow and it is having many mistakes. So he doesnt like to work with the manual system. 2. The manager is unable to produce the day to day transactions and other business information from the departments. 3. They have to spend more time consuming to send information and to get information from the other departments. 4. Receipts or invoices are not in a clear format, when giving after the business transaction to a customer or supplier. 5. The economy level is poor which means its hard to get good benefits from the system. Because of the resources (Rental, communication, and electricity bill) cost is very high now days. For these reasons they have to reduce the cost. In order to increase the benefits. 6. The business datas handling is not a secure way. Anyone can handle the records. And higher possibility of data loses. 7. The management have to spend more time to search the information and produce the reports about their transactions. 8. The existing manual system is not flexible and more complicated there for they must have to computerize the existing system. Technical feasibility The technical feasibility analysis, what the technical resources are available in the system, and what are the technical resources are need for the new computerized the system. Available technical resource: Air conditions facilities, Fans, Tables, Chairs, Shelfs They have limited technical resources. Earlier they have done all operations manually so they didnt need any technical resources. When they have work with computerized system they must need some all the relevant technical resources and the trained staffs. Following resources are needed in order to develop the system. Computers Processor: Pentium 2.2GHz or more Hard drive: 40GB or More. RAM: 512MB or more. Network cables switches CD-ROM drive. Monitor 15 colour colour printer black white printer Software requirements: Windows operating system. Special software for sales rental Microsoft Visual basic .Net SQL Database Economical feasibility The economical feasibility analyses about the cost and benefits of the company existing system and proposed system. Such as Software development coast, Hardware coast, as well as the system running coast. Schedule feasibility study The aim of the Schedule feasibility is analysis the planning and assessing the time period for the completion of this project Analysis-This analyse part, the problems and objectives were identified and the user requirements for the project. It takes two weeks time. Design-Based on the user requirements this part focuses on the system design. It could be divided in to two main parts. It takes three weeks time. Development-This part took six weeks time to develop the software product. Testing-In this testing part, two testing types took place. First, is unit testing and second is Acceptance testing in order to find out errors and solve the errors. This takes one weeks time. Implementation-The implementation section will show how section implemented. This takes one weeks time. Maintain-This part checks the objectives of the project and that it has met the user requirements. And this tells the project successfulness. 2 Literature Review 2.1 Introduction A large amount of analytical and theoretical works discovers new things, thorough that can encourage Effective improvements. However, it is essential to study the direct connections based on observation and research in order to get in to the related various type of efficiency achievements. In this literature, review I analysed based on research and observation straight away in the video rental business in order to find the key points and drawbacks. At presents the video rental business being the main topic of deep concern from the operations management community (Drezner and Pasternack, 1999; Dana and Spier, 2001; Pasternack, 2001; Lariviere and Cachon, 2002) Re: Coordination of quantity and shelf-retention timing in the video movie rentalindustryGerchak, Y; Cho, RK; Ray, S | IIE TRANSACTIONS | 2006-0738:7, | 525-536 | Description: Times Cited: 6 Because people are thinking now a days home video is very good leisure and it is a valuable entertainment expenses, which is make movie rental as a big business.   Normally video DVDs or CDs available on hand to the public, after a few months from release. These materials are available to public in two ways; first one is renting DVDs or CDs from rental Stores second one is selling DVDs form Retail Stores. My project deals with both Rental and Sales. According this system three main type of people will work Admin and staff who control the system. Supplier who providing the resources (CDs, DVDs) Member who renting or buying the CDs. Normal Customer who only buying CDs Companys main focus is video rental and sales. Currently the company give services to their customers through their manual system and handling all the transactions by manually. Its inconvenient to the customer often. For this reason the company has lose the customers in past and their turnover is shrinking when compare other stores. So the management has decided to computerize the transactions instead their existing manual system in order to give the efficient and improved services to their customers. This literature review will carried out the problems and make sure the work is going right way and valuable. Problems identified in the current system 1. Handling customer They are handling their customers manually. This will cause them difficulty and time consuming to search a Customer card. In case if a record has not been entered in to the required file or a book, there may be some disagreements between the customers and the employees of the company. This leads to shrink the fame of the company. Solution:-Handling and maintain of the customers in a glowing comportment. 2. Maintaining the sales records The sales records of the company are not kept very effectively. Records cannot be easily track in case of future reference. The company cannot have a well planned future business because it cant go through the past records and most of the records are not very accurate. Solution:-Well organized method of handling of all the sales. 3. Maintaining the information of their products The details of their products are not kept in a well organized manner and cannot be referred when needed. The products sold, and the stock balance is not easily tracked, hence the shortage or some time certain important products maybe out of stock, then in such a circumstance customer satisfaction will be very much reduced. Solution:-All the products and its brands are clearly following a path. 4. Problems on maintaining the Payment Sometime they may ask the customer to pay for one product twice by mistake, such incident will make to shrink the good relation and the trust of the customer, making to lose customers confidence as well loosing the customer. Solution:-Product balance can be tracked time to time. 5. Maintaining the supplier information There would be a lot of suppliers. Its difficult to find a supplier detail without being delayed or maybe in some cases they might loss a contact detail of a particular supplier, which might be an important contact for a special product or a Brand, loosing this sort of information will make the company to have problems of finding products of famous brands. Solution:-All the supplier information will be collect then and there. 6. No updated information available Updated information is not very easy to provide to customers if the company runs manually. Solution:-Brands and latest editions that are being handled by the company can be tracked without doubt. 7. Payments can only be made by cash or credit payments Running manually, the company could have only the payment methods of cash and cheques. This is a great disadvantage for the customers who use the credit payment card. Solution:-Payment can be made in cash or credit, and efficient and quick service can be provided. 8. Problem:-Dissatisfaction of customers While the business is running on the manual system, the customers would not be satisfied of the services provided to them. They might have to wait in a long queue to pay for the items they bought. This may be due to the absence of the employees or maybe due to the slow system of the company. Solution:-Membership form will be filled automatically, according to the sales that are made and this would only be for the required sales. Some additional solutions Make sure the integration, integrity and independently for the video rental system and reduce as soon as possible changes for human errors by introducing database concepts. Introduce high secure functionality. It is important that customers and the suppliers information be prevented from leaked out. System will also enables the management to do accurate calculation as well as obtain reports such as total income for the given time period. Better utilization of storage space. Doing away with manual will reduce the space taken up by the data storage. This can be utilizing the better for other purpose. A comprehensive project database that act as a central repository to track the below mentioned needs. Define work in progress. Easy access for the items short shipped on the order. Easy to scheduling and tracking records Easy of maintaining, schedules, monitoring, reporting of progress. 2.2 Legal Social Ethical and Professional Issues and Considerations In this project, I am used copyright material, such as Microsoft products, and Adobe products. Im used university of Greenwich licence to use the other related soft wares. As a university student, I have the rights to use university resources. Some Interviews and questionnaire done by me with Owner of the business, staffs and some customers. In the project there are no any personal datas did not collected. Therefore, the data protection will not affect my project. All the collected data is stored in my personal computer with password protection. All the information will be deleted after completion this project. 4 Requirements Analysis 4.1 Introduction When consider about software development projects, requirement analysis is a most important part. In this part, be able to collect informations together about current situations in order to indentify the drawbacks about the system. This requirement analysis should be correct, testable and relevant to the company requirements. Moreover, it must be significant to system designing part. 4.2 Requirements Gathering In this part requirements can be collect in to the system boundary by contact the users to find out their requirements. In this part used to gather different types of techniques such as interviews, questionnaires, observation, etc 4.2.1 Questionnaires   Questionnaires are quick gather information from large amount of people in a certain period. It is possible to do paper based document either electronic copy. In addition, it is very cost effective method when compare with interview. Major advantages are most of the people are familiar to questionnaires and very easy to analyse.   This questionnaire has been used to gather informations from the customers. Questionnaires with customers    Melodius video 1. Role of person completing this form a. Manager (other company) b. Administrator c. Computer Programmer d. Customer 2. When you contact a melodius video representative, is he/she courteous? Are you satisfied with the way your problems or questions are handl? a. Most Satisfiedb. Satisfied b. Ok  c. Dissatisfied 3. How you feel other music centre compared to melodius video? a. Excellentb. Very good c. Good  d. Poor 4. How do you feel when you pay by using the membership card? a. Most Satisfied      b. Satisfied b. Okc. Dissatisfied 5. Who is the person in our organization you contact most frequently? a. Company Owner   b. Sales men b. Manager  d. Others 6. How you are, feel about our payment system? a. Excellentb. Very good c. Goodd. Poor 7. Comments (Please write us on the back of this form) Questionnaires with customers Answer sheet Melodius Video 1. Role of person completing this form a. a. Manager (other company)-16   b. Administrator-5 b. c. Computer Programmer-3 d. Customer-26 2. When you contact a melodius video representative, is he/she courteous?    Are you satisfied with the way your problems or questions are handle? a. Most Satisfied   -5    b. Satisfied-15 b. Ok -25    c. Dissatisfied -5 3. How you feel other music centre is compare to melodius video? a. a. Excellent -15  b. Very good-10 b. c. Good-20  d. Poor-5 4. How do you feel when you pay by using the membership card? a. Most Satisfied   -10   b. Satisfied-12 b. Ok -8 c. Dissatisfied-20 5. Who is the person in our organization you contact most frequently? a. Company Owner -6    b. Sales men-24 b. Manager -10   d. Others -10 6. How you are, feel about our payment system? a. a. Excellent-5  b. Very good-5 b. c. Good -15   d. Poor-25 7. Comments? (Please write us on the back of this form) 4.2.2 Interviews Interviews are one of the most common and powerful techniques to find out the requirements. This brings to face-to-face contact with customers or staffs to discover their requirements. And interviews are makes a higher response rate. Also, make clear about doubts and make sure that perfectly understood by repeating questions. Appropriate People 1. Company Owner 2. Company manager 3. Payment Division manager 4. Stock division manager 5. Purchase division manager 6. Sales division manager 7. Lending manager Interview with Company Owner: Objectives: 1. Get the permission to analyze the system. 2. Identify the people who are participating the system. 3. Study about the problems of the existing system. 4. His/her expectation about the new system. Questions: 1. What are the major departments you have? 2. What are they doing? 3. What are the problems are you facing with in the current system? 4. How should be the proposed system? 5. What are the facilities you want to include with the proposed system? 6. Do you have enough money for the new system? Interview with Company manager Objectives: 1. Study the problems with the existing system. 2.   Study about manager work. 3.   Study about what are the difficulties he/she facing his/her work. 4.   Who are the people involved with each departments Questions: 1. How you are working for current system? 2. What are the problems you are facing for the current system? 3. Are you satisfied with other staff work? 4. What are you expect of the new system. Interview with payment Division manager Objectives: 1. Know the problems with the existing payment system. 2. Study about his/her work. 3. Identify the difficulties with his/her work.   Questions:   How you are working for existing payment system? What are the problems are you facing for the current system? When more customers come to make the payment, can you manage? How will your action if a customer is not made his payment? 5. How you handle your payment database? Interview with stock Division manager Objectives: 1. Know the problems with the existing payment system. 2. Study about his/her work. 3. Identify the difficulties with his/her work. Questions: 1. How you are working for existing system? 2. What are the problems are you facing for the Stock activities? 3. When more and more items come to the stock, how can you handle? 4. Do you like increase stock division people amount? What are the reasons? 5. How you handle your stock database? Summarize of the interview Interviewer: Company owner Subject: Study of the company Duration: Two hours Mr. Thanushan is the owner of the melodious video company. He likes to build the manual system to the computerize system, because the company staff have to work quickly and accurately. For that, he is satisfied to have a centralized database. He is not satisfied to have an online computerize system. In addition, he likes to have good quality software for the company sales, inventory rental activities. Thanking interview. Interviewer: Company Manager Subject: Study of the complete system Duration: Two hours Mr. David is company manager. He likes to work with computerize system, because the company staff have to work quickly and accurately. In addition, he is unable to get the information from the sub divisions. He is not satisfied to have an online computerize system. Moreover, he likes to have good quality software for the company sales, inventory rental activities. Thanking interview Interviewer: Payment division Manager Subject: Details of the payment system Duration: Two hours Mr. Suresh is the manager of the payment division. He likes to work with computerize system, and centralized database system, because he feel very difficult to work with the manual system. In addition, he has to generate the report quickly and accurately. Thanking interview Interviewer: Stock Division manager Subject: Details study of the stock activities Duration: Two hours Mr. Rohan is the manager of the stock division. He likes to work with computerize system, and centralized database system. Moreover, he likes to increase the stock division employees. In addition, he likes to have more shelves to keep the stock. Because he have difficult to keep the items without damages and the staff have to spend more time to find out the place of the items. Thanking interview Interviewer: Purchase division Manager. Subject: Details of the purchase activities Duration: Two hours Mr. Kishan is the manager of the purchase division. He likes to work with computerize system, and centralized database system, because he have to work quickly and accurately. And he likes to purchase the cds from good quality Product Company. For that, he likes to contract some good quality companies. Thanking interview. Interviewer: Sales division Manager Subject: Details analysis of the sales activities Duration: Two hours Mr.Roys is the manager of the sales division. He likes to work with computerize system, and centralized database syst

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Essay --

CIMB Group Holdings Berhad CIMB Group Holdings Berhad is a dominant ASEAN universal bank, one of the largest investment bank in Asia and also one of the world's largest Islamic banks. CIMB Group provided services in consumer banking, wholesale banking, Islamic banking and asset management. Its corporate banking and treasury markets business offers one of the most comprehensive and integrated product and services that suites universal banks in ASEAN. CIMB Group in Malaysia headquartered in Kuala Lumpur. It is first known as Bian Chiang Bank and was established in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia in 1924 by Wee Kheng Chiang where the bank's activities were mainly related to business financing and the issuance of bills of exchange. Currently, the group has over 43,000 employees located in 18 countries, covering ASEAN and major global financial centres. Its products and services are complemented by partnerships and alliances with many well-known companies such as Principal Financial Group, Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Sun Life Assurance, Allianz Insurance, Thai Life Insurance, Sri Ayudhya General Insurance, and Mapletree Investments. Dutch Lady Dutch Lady Milk Industries Berhad (Dutch Lady Malaysia) was incorporated in 1963. It is the first milk company that listed on Bursa Malaysia in 1968. The Company’s factory is located in Petaling Jaya and has over 600 employees. Its holding company is Royal FrieslandCampina, a Dutch multinational corporation and one of the largest milk companies in the world. Dutch Lady Malaysia manufactures and sells quality dairy products and fruit juices not just for the home, but also for the export market. The company's dairy products have high consumer demand and are represented by familiar brands such as D... ...was incorporated in Malaysia on 15 April 1995 as a private company which under the name of Ampney Holdings Sdn Bhd. Amway is one of the world's largest direct selling companies in Malaysia. The Amway business has grown to provide opportunities for more than three million people and marketing around 450 products. In addition, the main activity of Amway is investment holding and it now operates in over 80 countries. Amway can consider as the global leader in the direct sales business sector, and it was the most experienced and supportive partner. The Amway company began the business as a low-cost business opportunity. Today, Amway is the leading direct selling company in Malaysia with a core distributor force of 221,000 from all corners of the nation and a high sales turnover for the financial year ended 31 December 2010 that making Amway a household name in Malaysia.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Relationships in Shakespeares As You Like It Essay -- Shakespeare As

Relationships in As You Like It      Ã‚   "Pronounce that sentence on me, my liege. I cannot live out of her company"(Shakespeare quoted in Norton Anthology 1611). Who made these remarks about the dear Rosalind, was it Celia, the one whom she calls 'coz', or is Orlando the man that she is in love with? The question then becomes if Celia said these words what was her meaning. Is it that Celia is attracted to Rosalind as more than a friend or is this just an example of the female friendships of the time? This is a look at the different dynamics of relationships during the Renaissance. Those relationships of female friends, male bonding and homoeroticism in "As You Like It".    During the Renaissance the friendship between females was very important. At this time in history there came a time when a woman was no longer considered attractive to a man. When she reaches this point the friendship that she forms between herself and another female takes the place of a marriage. "The female friendship seems to appear in a specifically social form of female chastity which revises the characteristic masculinity of friendship rhetoric in the period" (Shannon 658). An example of the friendship that exists between Celia and Rosalind in "As You Like It" can be found in Act 3 scene 4 lines 1-5:    Rosalind: Never talk to me. I will weep." Celia: Do, I prithee, but yet have the grace to consider that tears do not become a man Rosalind: But have I not cause to weep? Celia: As good cause as one would desire; therefore weep (Shakespeare quoted in the Norton Anthology 1634)    In this conversation Celia takes on the masculine role even though it is Rosalind that is dressed as a man. Celia is very strong at a point... ...ts are still present. It is a difficult situation to state if a relationship is truly erotic or if it is only the views that our modern society is placing on it. A society in which sex sells and it doesn't matter who the relationship is between.    Works Cited Sedgwick, Eve. Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire. New York. Columbia Univ. Press1985 Shannon, Laurie. Emilia's Argument: Friendship and 'Human Title' in The Two Noble Kinsmen. ELH 64.3 (1997) 657-682 Strout, Nathanial. As You Like It, Rosalynde, and Mutuality. SEL Studies in English Literature 1500-1900 41.2 (2001) 277-295 Traub, Valerie. The Renaissance of Lesbianism in Early Modern England. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 7.2 (2001) 245-263 Walen, Denise. Constructions of Female Homoerotics in Early Modern Drama. Theatre Journal 54.3 (2002) 411-430

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

I Lost the Chance :: Personal Narrative, Autobiographical Essay

I Lost the Chance My father and I are made from much the same mold. As my brother resembles my mom, I resemble my father. I inherited his enjoyment for puzzles, words and wit. I share much of his eclectic musical tastes. As I grow older, I see more and more of his traits consciously and subconsciously exhibited in me. I have spoken with my father one time in the past 8 1/2 years. Divorced parents are always a messy situation for the kids, and our family was no exception. My younger brother and I had our ups and downs with both parents, fortunately mostly ups. The time came when my father decided that he wanted us to live with him. He was very convincing... but never convincing enough to gain a commitment from us. Unfortunately, he refused to let it alone at that. I was, at the time, a sophomore in high school, my brother in 8th grade. Eventually, we cracked. Agreed to move in with him. All was right in his world. Except one thing. We could not bring ourselves to tell my mom. Eventually, though, it happened. A long, late-night discussion ensued with my mom, discussing the motivations for our decision, his request, and our feelings on the entire matter. That discussion was the difference. As alike as my father and I are, he never gave us that choice. Despite the enormous emotional stress this sudden announcement must have put on mom, she never once tried to coerce us to stay for one reason or another... and in the end that is why she won. The shoe on the other foot again, we were horribly hesitant to approach our father on the issue. One day it just happened. "We're not going to move in with you." I remember nearly everything about that evening. It was Thanksgiving weekend. My father told us to gather anything we wanted from his apartment. He berated us nearly the entire drive from his place to mom's house. "You'll fit in well in the business world... completely cold-hearted." He pulled up and we stepped out of the car. For seven years, the last words I heard my father speak were "Have a nice life" as he pulled away. Over the past four years, my brother and I have made attempts to contact him or meet with him, always with the same utter avoidance in response.

Smoking and god

Smokingâ€Å" If God had wanted us to smoke, he would hold given us a separate hole for it. † These are the words that I have heard when I was immature. My male parent kept stating me these words as he experienced it himself. My male parent was a tobacco user. He started smoking when he was 18 and he kept smoking until 35 when I was born. He was smoking more than three battalions of coffin nails daily. He described himself when he was a tobacco user as a really thin adult male and his face was pale. He was like a adult male who lost his wellness. After a few old ages he suffered from diabetes. He spent about 17 old ages smoking until God had enter his life and he quit smoking. From that clip, he kept warning me and my brothers about smoke. This essay is traveling to discourse the smoke issue among teens and offers some solutions. Smoke is considered a really unsafe disease that threats every tobacco user. It contains nicotine which is the chief beginning for smoking ‘s diseases. Nicotine has three of import effects. First, it rises up the blood-pressure. Second, it increases the bosom rate. Third, it constricts blood vass. The people who smoke inhale C monoxide which decreases the sum of O which goes to the encephalon and in the bosom. Furthermore, smoking makes the tobacco users agony of shortness of breath, bosom diseases, lung diseases and other disease such as malignant neoplastic disease. â€Å" Smoke putting to deaths. If you ‘re killed, you ‘ve lost a really of import portion of your life. † Brooke Shields This was one of Brooke Shields † expressions. He was seeking to converting people non to smoke by stating them about smoking ‘s hazards. Presents, most of the tobacco users are teens. Harmonizing to the Egyptian Smoking Prevention Research Institute ( ESPRI ) , Egypt has the biggest figure of tobacco users than any other state in the Middle East. There are more than 50 % of work forces over 18 smoking and they consume more than 70 billion coffin nails yearly. Smoke is considered a really of import societal issue. Nowadays, smoking becomes available for everyone. There are immature kids, teens, grownups, work forces and adult females who smoke every twenty-four hours. The figure of tobacco users is increasing every twelvemonth. In add-on, most of those tobacco users are teens. They want to smoke for chief three grounds which they are to look mature, to experiment, and to be like their friends. First, teens think that they will go older when they smoke as they see the old people smoke. Second, they want to experiment new things because they are young persons. They ever have the ability to seek out something new, particularly when they see many people do so. Third, many teens smoke because of their friends because they think that they should make the same to be accepted in this group. Although of these of import grounds, there are other grounds for them to smoke such as personal jobs and household jobs. Most of the tobacco users when they ge t nervous or angry, they do anything. Some of them smoke believing that this coffin nail will do them experience happy. Other tobacco users have jobs with their household or work, particularly with the parents who are tobacco users. Many kids imitate their parents ‘ wonts and as they see them smoking, the start to make like them. They believe that when they do like them, they will move like them besides as a adult male or adult female. This can do them hold a batch of force per unit area and emphasis. Weight is considered another ground as there are many people who smoke to free their weight. Every state should pay more attending to those people who are addicted to smoking. These states should increase the consciousness plans and set more advertizements in the street. They besides should forestall smoke in crowded topographic points and edifice. Beside, there must be a jurisprudence that punishes the people who sell coffin nails to immature people and teens. â€Å" For thy interest, baccy, I would make anything but dice. â€Å" – Charles Lamb, This sentence is the ground for halting smoke. Smoking leads to decease and this is the chief ground. Teenss must hold an internal ability to halt quit smoke. â€Å" The best manner to halt smoke is to transport wet lucifers. † – Anonymous If one has truly wants to discontinue smoke, he will make anything to discontinue. There are many people who tell themselves that if they want to discontinue smoke, they can. But, in fact, they are non honorable with themselves. They are fallacious to themselves as they do nil to discontinue. Actually, this societal issue had truly affected me in a positive manner. When I thought in my male parent ‘s narrative, I found that if I smoke I will destruct my wellness with my ain custodies. As a consequence, I will destruct my organic structure which God had given me to salvage. In the beginning, when I was immature, my male parent told me his experiment with smoking many times but, I did n't cognize the underlying significance of this narrative until I grown up. I found that many tobacco users had encountered many diseases through their life. This narrative was the chief factor that encouraged me to maintain away from smoking. Finally, smoke is a really unsafe disease and can infect anyone who does non hold unsusceptibility. I think my male parent ‘s narrative is my unsusceptibility against smoke. Every clip he tells me his narrative, I get encouraged to halt believing about smoke. This besides promote me to avoid what my male parent has encountered and what he has suffered through his past life and even his recent life after quit smoke.Procedure MemoThis essay has been organized harmonizing to the experience that I have lived, so in what manner this experiment has affected me. Then, talk about the consequences of smoke. The theses were in the debut to allow the reader know what I will speak about.Work Cited1. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml? identifier=3003308 2. hypertext transfer protocol: //health.nytimes.com/health/guides/specialtopic/smoking-and-smokeless-tobacco/background.html

Monday, September 16, 2019

Corporate Irresponsibility and Corporate Social Responsibility: Competing Realities

Social Responsibility Journal Emerald Article: Corporate irresponsibility and corporate social responsibility: competing realities Brian Jones, Ryan Bowd, Ralph Tench Article information: To cite this document: Brian Jones, Ryan Bowd, Ralph Tench, (2009),†Corporate irresponsibility and corporate social responsibility: competing realities†, Social Responsibility Journal, Vol. 5 Iss: 3 pp. 300 – 310 Permanent link to this document: http://dx. doi. org/10. 108/17471110910977249 Downloaded on: 14-10-2012 References: This document contains references to 45 other documents Citations: This document has been cited by 3 other documents To copy this document: [email  protected] com Access to this document was granted through an Emerald subscription provided by UNIVERSITY OF BRIGHTON For Authors: If you would like to write for this, or any other Emerald publication, then please use our Emerald for Authors service. Information about how to choose which publication to write f or and submission guidelines are available for all. Please visit www. emeraldinsight. com/authors for more information.About Emerald www. emeraldinsight. com With over forty years' experience, Emerald Group Publishing is a leading independent publisher of global research with impact in business, society, public policy and education. In total, Emerald publishes over 275 journals and more than 130 book series, as well as an extensive range of online products and services. Emerald is both COUNTER 3 and TRANSFER compliant. The organization is a partner of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and also works with Portico and the LOCKSS initiative for digital archive preservation. *Related content and download information correct at time of download.Corporate irresponsibility and corporate social responsibility: competing realities Brian Jones, Ryan Bowd and Ralph Tench Brian Jones is a Senior Lecturer, Ryan Bowd is a Senior Lecturer and Ralph Tench is Professor in Communications Edu cation, all based at Leeds Business School, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK. Abstract Purpose – Building on the work of Carroll this article attempts to unravel, explore and explain corporate social responsibility (CSR) as a theoretical construct that has implications and consequences for corporate governance in particular, and more generally for the economy, business and society.It aims to extend Carroll’s work on de? nitional constructs by re-examining some of the theoretical frameworks that underpin, inform and guide CSR. Design/methodology/approach – Carroll identi? ed different levels, or a pyramid, of CSR and these are outlined and the advantages and disadvantages of a pyramid, levels-based approach discussed. The main contributions of this article lies is in its exploration of corporate social irresponsibility (CSI) as a concept in contrast to CSR.Bowd, Jones and Tench’s CSI-CSR model is described, explained, analysed and used as a concept ual tool to make the theoretical move from a pyramid or level-based approach to a more dynamic framework of analysis. Findings – The proposition that CSI is better suited to a shareholder business model and CSR sits more comfortably with a stakeholder business model is examined. It is contested that people often wrongly equate CSR with irresponsible corporate actions. The CSI-CSR model establishes a theoretical framework around which grounded empirical research can be undertaken, applied and on which it can be reported.Research limitations/implications – This is a new area of research that addresses a gap in the literature and puts forward innovative theoretical models. Discussing the concept of irresponsibility makes for an interesting theoretical move. It questions the idea that corporations and business per se are always or necessarily socially responsible. Originality/value – In looking at and developing existing theoretical models, concepts and frameworks a nd exploring their merits, shortcomings and limitations, the article will be of interest and relevance to the business and academic communities.If there is such a thing as CSR then the implication is that there is such a thing as CSI and it is on this issue that this article seeks to promote and stimulate discussion. Keywords Corporate social responsibility, Business ethics Paper type Research paper Introduction Corporations, their activities and governance have long been of interest to management and social scientists (see for example, Sampson, 1983). As it has gained a higher pro? le on the political, economic and business agendas in recent years (see for example, www. csr. gov. k; Commission of the European Communities, 2001, 2002), corporate social responsibility (CSR) has received increased attention from academics (see Whetten et al. , 2002; Arpan, 2005; Evuleocha, 2005; Riese, 2007; Birch, 2008). Corporate governance can be de? ned in a narrow and a broad way. For those who d e? ne it narrowly corporate governance is largely concerned with board level management issues. Reporting on the situation in the UK the Committee on the Financial Aspects of Corporate Governance (1992, p. 15) described the term as ‘‘the system by which companies are directed and controlled’’.Such a narrow de? nition, adopting and advocating as it does a top The authors would like to thank David Crowther and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments in developing this paper. PAGE 300 j SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY JOURNAL j VOL. 5 NO. 3 2009, pp. 300-310, Q Emerald Group Publishing Limited, ISSN 1747-1117 DOI 10. 1108/17471110910977249 down approach to management, serves to demonstrate by example the inherent weaknesses of a command and control managerial style. Adopting both a bottom up and top down approach to management can better facilitate progress in regards to CSR.Corporate governance is at least in part about managerial compliance with legal requi rements surrounding CSR. Accepting the above, a more broad based de? nition might suggest that corporate governance permeates every level of the organisation, its activities and actual day-to-day operational workings. CSR is not con? ned to management but affects the whole organisation and its stakeholders (for a discussion of the stakeholder model of the corporation please see Donaldson and Preston, 1995; Cornelissen, 2004). This article adopts a broad-based de? nition of corporate governance. ‘Corporate citizenship’’ is a term commonly used in the same debates. There is lack of agreement on a common universal standardised de? nition of CSR and as a result there is confusion and overlap in the plethora of terms used (see Nielsen and Thomsen, 2007, p. 25) This article helps de? ne elements of CSR, thus aids understanding of the term and in so doing can better inform strategies for communication (Demetrious, 2008). CSR and corporate governance and citizenship are increasingly debated academic issues (see, for example, Schleifer and Vishny (1997); www. csr. gov. uk).Much of the emphasis has been placed upon businesses and business people to act in a more socially responsible manner and to acknowledge that shareholders are only one of a number of business stakeholders (Letza et al. , 2004). New and innovative ways to address and deal with issues emerging from the CSR and corporate governance agendas are increasingly being sought. This article stresses the difference between corporate social irresponsibility (CSI) and CSR and contests that the dualistic (or CSI-CSR bi-polar) model allows for greater clarity and understanding of the concepts that constitute and de? ne these terms.It is suggested that CSI is a term better suited to describing the workings of the ‘‘old’’ shareholder business model (Friedman, 1962) and that CSR is more applicable to the workings of the new and emerging stakeholder business model (Freeman, 1984). The CSI-CSR model allows for discussion and positioning of issues around CSR. Communication about issues of social responsibility (Demetrious, 2008) vary according to whether it is irresponsible or responsible corporate action being reported. A range of internal and external variables (see Figure 1), for example new technology, impact on businesses, what they do and how they perform.Such issues or variables may contain differing degrees of responsible and irresponsible actions and activities. On one issue a corporation might have exemplary behavior but on another it may perform poorly and need corrective action; for example, a business may have good policies, practices and procedures with regards to issues of diversity and equal opportunities but may be weak in terms of its commitment to Figure 1 CSI-CSR dichotomous model VOL. 5 NO. 3 2009 SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY JOURNAL PAGE 301 j j addressing pollution and environmental concerns. The ways in which CSI and CSR issues are commu nicated differ.Quite simply responsible actions are, or ought to be trumpeted and irresponsible actions should be acknowledged. This is not always so. Some companies doing well in regards to CSR fail to communicate this message effectively or meaningfully. Some companies either knowingly or unknowingly doing badly in regards to CSR, in other words they are at the CSI end of the spectrum, might have their practices exposed and thus be in need of a communication strategy to deal with such an event. The CSR pyramid and de? nitional constructs Corporate social responsibility is de? ned by the British government on their website www. csr. gov. uk/whatiscsr. html as being about how: business takes account of its economic, social and environmental impacts in the way it operates – maximising the bene? ts and minimising the downsides’’ (Crown copyright, 2004). However this de? nition is only one of numerous and in some cases apparently polarised viewpoints of how CSR is de? ned in academic and professional thought (see for example, Carroll, 1979, 1991). Furthermore it has been proposed that CSR can be seen to be a construct that is individual to the stakeholder that de? nes it, and has been referred to as the social contract organisations have with their stakeholders (Bowd et al. 2005). Tullberg (2005) suggested two approaches to CSR; one the ‘‘responsive’’ and the second the ‘‘autonomous’’ approach. The autonomous approach is described as more independent and involves the company ignoring other stakeholders’ opinions to formulate strategy. The responsive approach suggests organisations should aim at being as responsive as possible to the demands emanating from society for them to act responsibly. This approach allows managers to think about the hypothetical public reaction to situations and to consider strategies to deal with them. In carrying out an analysis of CSR de? itions in academic and professional literature Bowd et al. (2006, p. 150) captured a variety of points and attributes that are believed to make up CSR and suggest it involves: . . . proactive community involvement, philanthropy, corporate governance, corporate citizenship, addressing of social issues, a commitment to the quality of its products and services, human rights, health, safety and the environment. . . Carroll (1979, 1991) and Wood (1991) have contributed to building de? nitions of the different levels at which organisations respond to their corporate social responsibilities. These levels of responsibility are de? ed as follows: B Economic level. Organisation produces products and services that society wants and sells them at a pro? t. Legal level. Organisation obeys all the laws and rules applied by the state. (E. g. tax, regulation, etc. ) Ethical level. Organisation views it as its responsibility to satisfy society’s expectations of business to go beyond basic legal requirements and do what is just and fair, and their practice is re? ective of this. Discretionary level. Organisation goes beyond stakeholder views of what is just and fair, and is an exemplary corporate citizen (adapted from Carroll (1979, 1991)).B B B It is clear from the list above that Carroll’s (1991) pyramid has at its base starting point the economy and economic performance. This is seen as pivotal and from this the second level concerned as it is with the law and legal rights, duties, rules and obligations are built. The third level is focused on business ethics in a wide stakeholder context. Finally the discretionary level involves philanthropy and this is where an organisation typically goes beyond its everyday expected duty and is thus deemed to be a good corporate citizen. Carroll (1991, p. 2) cautions that: No metaphor is perfect, and the CSR pyramid is no exception. It is intended to portray that the total CSR of business comprises distinct components that, taken together, con stitute the whole. Though the components have been treated as separate concepts for discussion purposes, they PAGE 302 SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY JOURNAL VOL. 5 NO. 3 2009 j j are not mutually exclusive and are not intended to juxtapose a ? rm’s economic responsibilities with its other responsibilities. These points remain relevant to the circumstances of the 21st century.Nevertheless, Carroll’s (1991) model can be critiqued on a number of grounds. Firstly in adopting and applying a level based pyramid approach it appears as a staged hierarchy in which movement is based on ? xed criteria. It is contested here that this is not necessarily the case and that the concept of a levels based approach and ? xed criteria can act as a hindrance to further developing knowledge and understanding. Secondly the dynamism that characterises the social, economic and business world is only partially captured by the CSR pyramid.At times, like all models Carroll’s pyramid appears as a t heoretical abstract removed from the complex realities of the world it seeks to explain. Despite these criticisms Carroll’s (1991) pyramid of corporate social responsibility does have varying degrees of theoretical and practical utility. The application of the model, together with the context in which it operates and an understanding of what it seeks to achieve at both the abstract and practical levels are in a number of respects crucial in developing knowledge, making sense of and interpreting the world.The model is useful as it aids understanding of CSR, the issues that pertain to it and can therefore help improve communication. The model helps unravel the concept, establishes key elements and distinguishes itself in its exploration of CSR. For this alone Carroll’s (1979, 1991) pyramid deserves plaudits. Nevertheless, despite the merits of the model it is suggested here (see Figure 2) that it can be improved by addressing the staged level based hierarchy to make it a more ? uid concept better able to adapt to a world in a state of near perennial ? ux.Change is constant and theoretical models are required to re? ect this universal truism. The CSI-CSR framework The CSI-CSR model As previously discussed in relation to the various component parts and models available, CSR can mean different things to different people. It might be suggested that a clear de? nition of the term should be provided for policy makers, practitioners, activists, business and the community. This issue has already been alluded to in terms of the existing plethora of de? nitions in existence and it is unlikely that one unifying de? ition will be agreed upon given the competing agendas of different stakeholders. Figure 2 CSI-CSR environmental dynamic model VOL. 5 NO. 3 2009 SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY JOURNAL PAGE 303 j j It is contested here that traditionally CSR has been confused and equated with CSI. For many, CSR is understood as, or de? ned in relation to, CSI; for example dis cussion of social responsibility issues often occurs when things are perceived as having ‘‘gone wrong’’ such as the recent Bear Stearns and Northern Rock crises.It is therefore necessary at the level of policy and practice and important at a conceptual level to separate out and de? ne the terms. CSI can be de? ned in relation to the issues that encompass it. For the key differences between CSI and CSR please see Table I. CSI is about being reactive as opposed to proactive in addressing corporate issues and the ways and means by which they relate to wider society. At its extreme CSI may entail breaking the law (e. g. Conrad Black, Robert Maxwell, Ernest Saunders). Companies such as Enron, Worldcom, and amongst others Union Carbide typify CSI.Getting it wrong in relation to CSR, in other words operating in a CSI manner, can have disastrous social, economic and business consequences as the aforementioned companies demonstrate so well. The bi-polar model develo ped here is not a one-dimensional linear process, as depicted below, in which investors, producers and consumers move from being irresponsible to being socially responsible. The trajectory proposed in Figure 3, based as it is on the Whig view of history in which the march of progress is seen as inevitable, is an ideal to be striven towards. The Whig interpretation of history has been described by Marwick (1989, p. 05) as: Table I CSR-CSI positions CSI Environmental degradation and pollution are inevitable and little if anything can or should be done Employees are a resource to be exploited Minimal community consultation and involvement Failure to comply, or reluctant and only basic compliance with legislation pertaining to CSR Ethical issues, if relevant at all are on the periphery of organisational working CSR Environmental degradation and pollution are not inevitable, should not be tolerated and it is important to raise awareness and commit to action Employees are a resource to be valued Maximise opportunities for community consultation and involvement Compliance with, as well as policy and practical actions that go beyond the minimum legislative requirements for CSR Ethical issues are central to and at the heart of organisational working Social exclusion is an inevitable by product of the operation of the Social inclusion helps to correct market inef? ciencies market New technologies should be developed and introduced to the market Governance of companies is best left to shareholders and management Work with suppliers and customers on an unfair basis Pragmatic approach to CSR issues Sustainability de? ned in terms of business survival Pro? is the sole purpose of business and should be achieved at any cost New technologies should be developed, tested, evaluated and if harmless introduced to the market Governance of companies involves shareholders, managers and a wide range of stakeholders including unions, works councils etc Work fairly with suppliers and cu stomers Principled and pragmatic approach to CSR issues Sustainability de? ned in terms of business, environmental and community survival and mutual growth Pro? t is one of many purposes of business and should be achieved, but not at any cost Figure 3 Linear CSI-CSR model PAGE 304 SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY JOURNAL VOL. 5 NO. 3 2009 j j . . the view, prevalent in nineteenth century Britain, that history was steady progress towards liberal ideas and institutions. The reality of CSI and CSR is something of a more complex dynamic. It is contested here that CSI and CSR lie at opposite ends of a continuum. On the CSI-CSR continuum individuals, groups and organisations are not static but move between the two extremes. Movement between the positions is two directional and is driven by external environment factors such as legislation, politics, technology, ? nance, economics, culture and such like. One factor may prompt movement towards CSR whilst a counter prevailing factor may prompt movement towards CSI.The dichotomous CSI-CSR framework contains within it an inherent tension that is irreconcilable given that CSR is an ever-evolving concept; for example, the recent move towards bio-fuels intended to address the problem of climate change and global warming is now being called into question as a result of the in? ationary impact it is having on food prices. It is a two way variable process and movement is back, forwards and multi-directional depending on the factors driving the issues. CSI and CSR need to be unpackaged in order to better understand the complex nature of their components, function, operation and practice. The model outlined in Figure 1 depicts the two-way ? ow of CSI and CSR and has the potential to act as a tool for un-packaging and better understanding of the terms.The CSI-CSR model contributes to theoretical analysis and practical description and explanation. Depending on which side of the model businesses choose to operate within CSR can be either a â⠂¬ËœÃ¢â‚¬Ëœcore’’ or ‘‘add on’’ feature. For companies at the left of the spectrum and although there is other recent examples (e. g. Bear Stearns) nothing typi? es this better than Enron, CSR is an ‘‘add on’’ feature to their business operation – an afterthought rather than forethought. For companies at the right of the spectrum, such as the Co-operative Bank in the UK, CSR is a core feature that underpins, informs and guides their business strategy, operation and practice.Corporate communication practitioners could use the model to map and monitor CSR issues as they impact on their organisation. The model can be used in both a reactive and a proactive way. For example management might undertake a mapping and monitoring exercise, in other words a CSR audit, whereby they identify where their organisation lies on the CSI-CSR spectrum according to pro? t, ethical standards, human resources, community involvement and so on. Such an exercise will help practitioners identify areas in which their organisation is performing well with regards to CSR and identify areas for improvement. The model is useful in so far as it allows for the application of theory to communication practice.The CSI-CSR model provides for an analytical approach as opposed to a more prescriptive, staged approach to corporate citizenship (Mirvis and Googins, 2006). Some of the issues impacting on and shaping the changing dynamics of the CSI-CSR continuum are shown in Figure 1 and given more detail in Table I. Almost inevitably CSI and CSR are ideal types and as such have potential but also limits to their usefulness. As ideal types the two approaches shown in Table I serve to represent the extreme positions. Reality is often a complex mix of CSI and CSR modes of working. In a business, community or organisational setting CSR practice in part depends on various stakeholder requirements, customer and business needs.Whether wit h regards to customers, suppliers or the wider community a mix of CSI and CSR mode of working can operate comfortably alongside and within the various functional areas of management and the actual practices of the business itself. The CSI versus CSR framework allows managerial practitioners, theoreticians and others to discuss, contextualise and re? ect on their own practice in relation to CSR. In itself the model does not provide answers but as a managerial tool of analysis it allows for exploration of issues that may otherwise be ignored, or simply forgotten. Rochlin and Googins (2005, p. 2) write: Increasingly, businesses are becoming exposed to the risks associated with the gap between what they say and what they do. ‘What they say’’ might be equated with CSR and ‘‘what they do’’ might be equated with CSI. There is a gap between management rhetoric and reality as it is experienced and lived on the ground. The CSI-CSR framework allows management to acknowledge company VOL. 5 NO. 3 2009 SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY JOURNAL PAGE 305 j j mistakes, errors, as well as misjudgements and thereby help minimise reputation and substantive business damage from the rhetoric-reality gap. Increasingly business recognises the need to move from an irresponsible to a responsible position on CSR/corporate citizenship issues, such as community involvement. The CSI-CSR model can be described as a conduit of corporate governance in that it acts as an enabler to action.As a problem-solving tool it can assist planning and thus help facilitate a potentially better managed, more productive and socially responsible, pro? table business. As previously mentioned a CSR audit can help pre-empt and react to problems and in this sense the model acts as a problem-solving tool by identifying business and organisational areas for improvement. Having identi? ed areas that need addressing the business or organisation needs to establish a CSR plan of actio n to limit potential damage and maximise potential gain. The plan will need to be monitored and reviewed and ought to have short, medium and long-term aims and objectives.In all of this both internal and external communication is central to deliver effective corporate CSR change. It is suggested here that CSI is better suited to the workings of the ‘‘old’’ shareholder business model with the CSR approach being better suited to the needs of the new stakeholder business model (see for example, Hutton, 1995, 1999). The ‘‘old’’ shareholder business model (Friedman, 1962) with its overwhelming focus on pro? t and little or no regard to issues such as the environment is prone to the adoption of irresponsible business practices, a current example being the case of American banks and the sub-prime lending crisis. In contrast, the ‘‘new’’ stakeholder business model (Freeman, 1984) focuses on pro? but also seeks to address other issues of concern. As such, the CSI versus CSR model is representative of both broader and deeper structural change within the body politic, economy and society. Hutton et al. (1996, p. 88) write: Any civilised community should be justly concerned to create as much wealth as it can, to ensure that income and wealth are fairly shared and that centres of private and public power are properly accountable. The aim must be to build a free, moral, socially cohesive society based on universal membership, social inclusion and organised around the market economy. This is what we mean by the stakeholder economy and society.It can be argued that there has been a paradigmatic shift from a business model and way of working in which shareholder interests and issues such as return on investment reign supreme, to one whereby different stakeholders compete to in? uence and shape the business agenda, so that shareholder interests are simply one of many. Holding this thought in mind anot her way of conceptualising the CSI-CSR model and its relationship with internal and external environmental factors is detailed below. Figure 2 serves to show that internal and external variables as well as mixing with and affecting each other also interact and impact on the CSI-CSR continuum. The model conceived here is a rotating sphere intersected by its axis, the continuum. Business does not operate in a vacuum, it has rights as well as obligations and has competing needs to meet and address.Rights (see, amongst others, Locke, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1979 and Steiner, 1994), obligations (see Turner, 1986) and needs (see Ignatieff, 1990) change over time and between contexts. Customer needs do not always equate with supplier needs, for example in terms of delivery of goods. Compared to even the relatively recent past businesses today have obligations to address environmental and sustainability issues, for example by sourcing all or part of their energy needs from renewable sources. Busi nesses do have a right and are expected as well as encouraged to make a pro? t but not at any cost, for example by the use of child labour. Increasingly businesses have to meet increasing public expectations and to address legal obligations around environmental and sustainability issues. The need of business to make pro? can, and does at times, coincide as well as con? ict with its stated ethical aims and objectives. Competing stakeholders with differing needs, rights and obligations have to be managed to ensure con? ict is minimised, the business survives, grows and is able to meet its commitments to CSR. How needs, rights and obligations are prioritised and met in the context of changing internal and external environmental factors can determine business, life, death and growth. Rotating as it does on its axis serves to demonstrate that external as well as internal factors can at PAGE 306 SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY JOURNAL VOL. 5 NO. 3 2009 j j times buffet direction of the sphere and m ovement on the axis.Equally so, movement on the CSI-CSR continuum, or axis, can affect change and direction in the external and internal environment. Thus far the article has proposed a move away from a de? nition, explanation and analysis of CSR as a staged hierarchy; as espoused by Carroll (1991) in his pyramid of corporate social responsibility. Here, an alternative conceptualisation is suggested based on the notion that CSI should be separated out from CSR to facilitate greater understanding of the terms, their meaning, nature and purpose. Issues interspersed and feeding into the CSI-CSR continuum are affected by internal and external environmental factors. Such factors give shape, form and context to corporate governance and CSR.Placing Carroll’s (1991) pyramid of corporate social responsibility in a sphere (see above, Figure 2) as well as on and intersected by the CSI-CSR axis makes for an interesting theoretical and conceptual move. Putting the pyramid metaphorically i n the sphere recognises that the levels of responsibility are intrinsic to the way in which CSR is conceived. However, in suggesting that the pyramid and by implication the levels, can be rotated the inference is that the levels are neither hierarchical or static but ? uid and necessary to the other. In this model the levels move and take on differing degrees of importance according to internal and external environmental factors and the issues impacting on the directional movement of the CSI-CSR continuum.Contextual factors mean that economic, legal, ethical and discretionary levels change position inside the pyramid and that one cannot be fully understood without reference to the other. There is almost structured chaos within the model and thus lends itself to ideas emanating from chaos and complexity theories (see for example Marion, 1999; Byrne, 1998; Rowley and Roevens, 2000). The signi? cance of this article’s theoretical contribution is that it addresses the discussion and de? nition of CSR. By introducing the concept of CSI it counteracts the tendency to treat the concept of CSR as a one-dimensional single entity and unpacks the terms to reveal multi-faceted layers of complexity that are shaped by context. The idea of corporations acting irresponsibly is theoretically validated by the arguments posited here.As an analytical tool the CSI-CSR typology is of use to academics and practitioners as it facilitates the development of pro-active as well as re-active internal and external communication strategies. It is increasingly the case that CSR and CSI are issues about which corporations are required and expected to communicate. To do this effectively tools of analysis are required and herein lies the unique contribution of this article. Concluding remarks This article has explored and analysed CSR and its antithesis CSI. That businesses act both irresponsibly and responsibly is highlighted in the distinction made by the terms. The terms themselves a re often con? ated and a greater distinction ought to be drawn between CSR and CSI.It is wrong to equate irresponsible business practice with CSR. Writing about the issue of social responsibility Milton Friedman (1962:133) asserted that it was ‘‘fundamentally subversive’’. More than 40 years on since making those claims it is interesting to speculate as to how Friedman would describe the concept of CSI. The concept may act as an af? rmation of his original statement and could well be described by some as being ‘‘totally subversive’’. However, this description only tells part of the story, for the reality is that CSI allows for greater understanding and clarity of the processes and practices by which businesses operate in doing good as well as doing wrong.The CSI-CSR framework acts as a tool of support for management to identify issues that may do harm to the business, pre-empt or react to them, and thus not only place the business in a better position to survive but to also better meet customer needs. What some may deem to be a subversive concept is in fact a practical tool of analysis for an increasingly competitive business environment. The CSI-CSR framework enables businesses to better meet existing and emerging needs in a dynamic, highly competitive, ever-changing business environment. The proposed bi-polar, dualistic model enables analysis of CSR business practice and allows for change and measurement to be reported on in terms of a sliding scale of ‘‘doing good’’ as well as ‘‘doing bad’’. As well as operating as a theoretical conceptual model the VOL. 5 NO. 3 2009 SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY JOURNAL PAGE 307 j j roposed framework is also a tool of analysis that can be applied and used to enhance and make more transparent systems and practices of CSR. Analysed at a super? cial, linguistic level CSR is a concept that is hard to disagree with. It has a ‘à ¢â‚¬Ëœwarm’’ and ‘‘positive’’ feel to it and is something to which stakeholders are happy to sign up to in one way, shape or form. The sub-textual message inferred by the term CSR is that corporations are socially responsible. The term CSI challenges this CSR sub-text and poses questions around how corporations communicate these issues. That corporations can act irresponsibly is not something easily refuted.CSI and CSR are politically infused language based terms that surround and are about the roles of business, corporations and the politics and discourse of the workplace. The language used is soothing, calming and designed to ameliorate dissenting points of view. It is about building consent. At the same time however it is important for business to acknowledge when things go wrong in regards to issues of social responsibility, know how to deal with and manage the communication issues surrounding them with a view to mounting a damage limitati on exercise. One term cannot be conceived without the other, they are intertwined, belong to and are about each other. It is suggested here that CSI and CSR are part and parcel of the fabric of the ideal of a free, democratic, stakeholding, capitalist economy and society.As such, they are issues that require debate, monitoring and the engagement of individual and corporate active citizenship (see Marshall, 1963). Communication and dialogue are of critical importance for developing understanding and building knowledge of how to be a good individual and corporate citizen. For some the shift from a CSI to a CSR position is a perceptual rather than a substantive change. This critique of the CSR agenda is the voice of cynicism and belies what for others is an actual change in attitude and business practice. This of course is not to say that more could not be done. Such a critique is not without some merit in so far as CSI, even in today’s ‘‘open’’ and â⠂¬ËœÃ¢â‚¬Ëœtransparent’’ organisations, remains somewhat hidden from view.It should not be forgotten that CSI can impact on and harm companies’ bottom line and it is primarily for this reason that a conspiracy of silence pervades organisations and workplace cultures where irresponsible practices exist. Communication using open and transparent dialogue within organisations can facilitate the breaking of silence around irresponsible corporate practices and might limit future damage and/or create new business opportunities. The majority of companies are keen to embrace CSR issues and of their own volition go beyond legal minimum requirements. Not only do companies want to do well by doing good, but also some want to do good because they believe it to be the right and proper thing to do. Not all businesses are communicating what it is they do in regards to CSR to best effect.Regarding their social responsibility practices a CSI-CSR audit can help businesses identify areas of strength and areas for improvement. In itself such an exercise can act as a useful vehicle of and for communication. It is increasingly recognised that adopting a CSR approach can be both an ethical and pro? table way to manage a business. Ethics and pro? t are not mutually exclusive terms but have a symbiotic relationship in the form of CSR. Though nevertheless, at the end of the day and as Friedman (1962) rightly noted, the purpose of business is to make pro? t. In revisiting the work by Carroll (1979, 1991, 1999) and his exposition of CSR this article has sought to build on and further develop the concept, from both an academic and practitioner perspective.In applying the CSI-CSR framework as a legitimate tool of application and analysis it has established the premise that business does not always act in a responsible manner and does at times, given a particular set of circumstances, act irresponsibly. The import of the CSI-CSR model is in establishing this idea and rec ognising that from a theoretical and communication practice based world viewpoint action can be taken to address and minimise opportunities for irresponsible corporate actions and to maximise opportunities for responsible social behavior. The broad de? nition of good, ethically driven corporate governance strives towards CSR and away from CSI. 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(2002), ‘‘What are the responsibilities of business to society’’, in Pettigrew, A. , Howard, T. and Whittington, R. (Eds), Handbook of Strategy and Management, Sage, pp. 373-408. Further reading Center for Corporate Citizenship at Boston College and The US Chamber of Commerce Center for Corporate Citizenship (2005), The State of Corporate Citizenship in the US Business Perspectives in 2005, The Center for Corporate Citizenship at Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA. European Commission (2004), European Multistakeholder Forum o n CSR, Final Report, 29 June.European Commission, Employment and Social Affairs, Industrial relations and industrial change, European Commission Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs (2004), ABC of the Main Instruments of Corporate Social Responsibility, European Commission. Little, A. D. (2003), The Business Case for Corporate Responsibility, Beacon Press, Uck? eld. Corresponding author Brian Jones can be contacted at: b. t. 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