Wednesday, November 27, 2019
and can understand and comprehend around 20,000.... Free Essays on Contrasting Different Thinking Styles Free Essays on Contrasting Different Thinking Styles Contrast the thinking styles of three year-old and seven year-olds. When contrasting the difference in thinking styles amongst three year-olds and seven year-olds, a number of things are brought to attention. First off, usually at the age of 3 children are able to understand that thinking goes on inside the mind and that it can actually deal with either real or imaginary things, that someone can be thinking of one thing while doing or looking at another, that a person whose eyes and ears are covered can think about objects, and most kids at this age realize that thinking is totally different from seeing, talking, toughing, and knowing. These kids, at the age of three have a hard time realizing that the mental activity in the brain never ever stops. However, once they reach the age of 7, most of these children begin to understand this concept. At the age of 3, they also have no idea that they talk to themselves in their heads. Once they hit the age of 7, they can understand that people who are asleep do not engage in conscious mental activity. When talking about false beliefs and deception, it is stated that three-year-olds fail to recognize false beliefs, and this is believed to stem from egocentric thinking. These children tend to believe that everyone else knows what they know and believes what they do. By the age of 7 however, children can begin to realize that two people who see or hear the same thing may react or interpret it differently. One last thing that is important to factor when discussing the thinking styles of these two ages is vocabulary. This plays a key role because they greater the vocabulary, then the greater the mind. It is noted that three year-olds can use 900 to 1,000 different words and uses about 12,000 a day. By the age of 7 however, children have a vocabulary of right around 2,600 words and can understand and comprehend around 20,000....
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Current Issues in International Management Abstract Globalization has played a significant role in the world of business by allowing organizations to transact with little regard to national borders. This is so due to declining international trade barriers together with other international legal barriers that are opening the world to interact through trade more frequently.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Current Issues in International Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One such international trade organization is Union Carbide Limited, an American-based firm that established and operated a subsidiary plant in India for many years before a tragedy known as Bhopal disaster scuttled its operation in the country. However, what came out of that disaster were several ethical issues that the government of India, agencies of the government, the state government of Madhya Pradesh and the company abrogated. The disaster showed that companies could relax in key critical issues to do with the safety of the people, environment, and employees; however, such laxity may lead the firm to incur huge losses. Therefore, the ethical issues prompted the need for corporations to adopt corporate social responsibility policies to guide their operations. This paper looks at the Bhopal disaster ethical issues resulting from the disaster, the concept of corporate social responsibility, and the way it has come to dictate operations of multinational corporations in their international business. Corporate social responsibility, compensation systems As international barriers of trade become loose, MNCs presence in other nations, especially developing nations, became inevitable. As many praised activities of these international companies, it must not be forgotten that their negative effects continue to impact developing societies greatly. For example, one of the numerous criticisms leveled against MNCs in developing nations is that the inflow of FDI has contri buted to the reduction in efficiency while at the same time stifling growth in the host country (Spero and Hart, 2009). The argument is that most MNCs tend to be oligopolistic, predating the local firms and limiting their production, maintaining artificially high prices and as such, earns enormous oligopoly rents (Spero and Hart, 2009).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite earning a lot of oligopoly rents, the MNCs mostly fail to reinvest back in the particular nation but extract the rents through profit repatriation and straddling the growth of the developing country (Spero and Hart, 2009). Another argument is that most MNCs participate in blocking the national growth and economic prosperity by absorbing local capital instead of providing new capital. Also, they usually adopt inappropriate technology, create Ã¢â¬ËbadÃ¢â¬â¢ jobs for the locals, conduct resea rch in their home countries instead of the host countries, and mostly employ expatriates instead of the indigenous people of the host country (Spero and Hart, 2009). Lata and Kumar, investigating and writing about the impact of MNCs in Indian society, noted that MNCs had the responsibility to abide by the laws and rules of the host country, but most MNCs had ignored this fact. The position of the writers is that most MNCs had failed to suit to the needs of the local people and were totally disregarding the values of the people instead facilitating and promoting the values of their foreign companies (Lata and Kumar, 2010). The author believes that MNCs have moral obligations to fulfill in the host society in which they are operating. Further, MNCs are described to be only interested in the low cost of factors of production available in the developing nations where they pay low wages to local employees despite massively exploiting the resources found in those regions. As such, Lata an d Kumar note that MNCs are only directed by their vested interests. Wayans, on another perspective, is convinced that MNCs have provided the developing nations with the necessary and vital financial infrastructures that they have used to develop both financially and socially.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Current Issues in International Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More But at the same time, the MNCs have also brought in, Ã¢â¬Å"relaxed codes of ethical conduct that serve to exploit the neediness of developing nations, rather than to provide the critical support necessary for countrywide economic and social developmentÃ¢â¬ (Wyans, 2008, p.1). Maybe it is the work of Germany sociologist, Ulrich that captured the role of MNCs in the global trade and transactions when the author explored the concept of risk society. Ulrich observed that, due to globalization and modernization of the world, there were new forms of changes taking place characterized mainly in mass production and technological advancement (Gennip, 2005, p.1). These processes in their form were changing the nature of risks. For instance, as companies strived to produce goods and services in large quantities and at the same time, advance in technology, immeasurable risks were being created in form of Ã¢â¬Å"nuclear, chemical, defense and genetic sectors and also from the generalized use of carbon-based fuelsÃ¢â¬ (cited in Gennip, 2005, p.1). At the same time, widespread industrialization in its totality was exposing the climate of the whole world to more risks that in turn could results in catastrophic changes contributing immeasurable cost to the human society. Ulrich further noted that as these corporate risks intensified, the institutions charged with the responsibilities of managing the risks and protecting the lives of the people on overall were becoming unable to carry out their duties (cited in Gennip, 2005, p .1). This made the author note that, Ã¢â¬Å"threats have begun to outweigh socially agreed safety norms, and there seem to be no rational means at hand to achieve a rebalancingÃ¢â¬ (Gennip, 2005, p.1). Ulrich observed that there was increased intensification of transnational interdependence and what is evident is that there is establishment and growth in large-scale of Ã¢â¬Å"economic, cultural, political and societal globalization in which the dividing lines among states and even among Western and non-Western societies are ever less validÃ¢â¬ (cited in Gennip, 2005, p.1).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Due to increasing technological advancement and the inevitability of global interconnectedness, risks were becoming largely unforeseen where at the same time, Ã¢â¬Å"many of these risks were eluding national control because truly they are global in character and because they can be the totally unforeseen consequence of rapid innovation and technological changeÃ¢â¬ (Gennip, 2005, p.1). This scenario prompted Ulrich Beck to describe the modern and transnational market as a form of, Ã¢â¬Å"organized irresponsibilityÃ¢â¬ and that there was no existence of global governance hence managing transnational corporations had become difficult (Gennip, 2005, p.1). Bhopal Gas Disaster of 1984 Union Carbide Corporation, in its internationalization prospects, established a constituent plant in Bhopal India that manufactured pesticide chemicals, but the night of December 3, 1984, remains as one particular indelible history in the world and specifically to the people and inhabitants of Bhopal r egion. That night, an industrial catastrophe took place at the Union Carbide Indian chemical plant where there was a leak emanating from one of three tanks that were used in storage of highly toxic chemicals that the company used as raw materials to manufacture pesticides (Fadil, 1998). Immediately the leak took place, the entire city of Bhopal was engulfed in a shroud of toxic gas resulting in death of about ten thousands people, about 200, 000 injured with other tens of thousands orphaned and rendered homeless (Shrivastava, n.d, p.1; Fadil, 1998). The parent company, Union Carbide Company, located in USA controlled majority of the share in the Indian plant (Fadil, 1998, p.1); and when the Indian disaster took place, not only deaths and injuries lingered in the minds of many but also the economic consequences. Many families were rendered with no viable financial source to depend on as more and more jobs became scuttled (Fadil, 1998, p.2). The Indian government spending on the needs of the affected people amounted to over $40 million (Hartley, 1993 cited in Fadil, 1998, p.2) while the parent company UCL became legally responsible for the disaster and had to pay $470 million as compensation for the incurred damages (Hartley, 1993 cited in Fadil, 1998, p.2). As a result of the accident, many questions revolving around the safety precautions and code of conduct by UCL are still being asked. The conviction among many analysts is that if the company had adhered strictly to its safety standards and code of conduct, then the accident would have been averted. The tragedy brought to limelight the complexities of morality of international and other big corporations in their business transactions, specifically in developing nations (Fadil, 1998, p.2). Analyzed from the cultural standpoint, the disaster took place because of cultural differences between India and UCL with American roots on how to carry out activities of a corporation in a safer way. For instance, the Indi an government bestowed all responsibilities to the American managers and trusted their ability to operate within appropriate safety measures. Once they were faced with budgetary pressures, the expatriates from America appeared to relax on the safety standards of the company exploiting the vacuum that existed due to lack of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s government to legislate and enforce any meaningful protective law or regulations (Fadil, 1998, p.2); and as such, the disaster found opportune environment to take place. The legal responsibility bestowed upon the parent company indicates how corporations are being viewed and regarded as ethical institutions where their activities need to be regulated by some minimum moral aspects. As to what resulted in the accident, many factors have been cited. First, there is an almost consensus that the plant location was unfit since it was placed in a densely populated region (Fadil, 1998, p.4; Shrivastava, n.d). in addition, the UCL India management failed in its responsibility to provide early warning to the people of the region about the likely risks of the chemical plant. Moreover, there was notably poor communication connections between the Indian branch and the UCL main headquarter located in the city of Connecticut, USA and many of those employed at the Indian department had inferior training as far as the plantÃ¢â¬â¢s matters of technology were concerned especially with regard to appropriate storage of the pesticide chemicals (Fadil, 1998). Also, the Indian government has been held responsible for it lacked Ã¢â¬ËtightÃ¢â¬â¢ safety standards for the company a compared to those of USA and operations at the Bhopal plant utilized sub-standard measures (Jackson, 1984 cited in Fadil, 1998). Lastly, employee-management problems have also been cited as a probable contributory factor where workers were highly demoralized and their ultimate output and concern for the company became reduced. To what extend can majority of ownership be used to ascertain the liability of various parties in case of major industrial accidents Subsidiary plants are seen to be playing an increasing and vital role especially in providing a competitive advantage but what is becoming clear is the fact that the division of decision making authority between the headquarter and the subsidiary responds to the institutional contexts of both the parent company and the subsidiary (Jong and Vo, 2010). The autonomy of the subsidiary plants is still a contested issue, although the autonomy of the subsidiary plants has gained momentum. But the variations that still exist in the home and host country environments next to and on top of a parent company and subsidiary characteristics constitute the main yardsticks used to determine variations in the autonomy of the subsidiary plants (Jong and Vo, 2010). Currently depending with the particular environments they operate in, MNCs are seen to be different in that, some MNCs give measurable autonomy to thei r subsidiaries in terms of decision-making while others still hold tight the activities and operations of their subsidiary plants. What is evident is that the relationship between the parent company and its subsidiary plants has become important while at the same time appear complicated, confusing and even conflicting (Jong and Vo, 2010). In some instances, the size of the parent company and the level of the diversification of its products have played a key role in autonomy of the subsidiary plants. As a matter of fact, determining the majority of ownership in an effort to ascertain liability in case of major industrial accidents has been hampered by relatively weak international institutions in providing clear guidelines about the operation and autonomy of subsidiary plants. Arguments over which is the best criterion or extent of putting liability responsibility to the parent company or subsidiary company has been a challenge due to loopholes in international systems guiding MNCs. Hence MNCs have been able to put liability of responsibility to their subsidiary plants knowing well the weak institutional environment in the host countries. What is needed is a clear insight into the role and extent of institutional environment in the autonomy of subsidiary plants both in the host and parent countries in which the MNCs operates. Such an understanding will make it possible to ascertain the level and extent of MNCs involvement in the operations of the subsidiary plants and also the level and extent of subsidiary autonomy so that in case of an industrial accident it becomes easier to identify whether it is the parent company or the subsidiary plant has the responsibility for the liabilities. Both national and international institutional framework for the parent and host country will be necessary for realizing this goal. To what extent should be the government responsibility in ensuring MNCs operate within safety frameworks? Pendleton (2004) argues that multinationals cannot just operate on voluntary actions to guarantee the safety upon which they need to carry out their actions. At the same time, Christian Aid organization argues that Ã¢â¬Å"voluntary action by multinational companies is not enough to guarantee the human rights and the environment of poor communities in developing countries is protectedÃ¢â¬ (cited in Pendleton, 2004, p.1). As such the author together with the Christian Aid organization are of the views that there should be international regulatory standards in place with appropriate powers to ensure MNCs operate truthfully within CSR policies, they adopt (Pendleton, 2004, p.1). The convictions of these two categories of people are that while there are some companies that may operate responsibly there are others at the same time that may operate irresponsibly and CSR as the only policy to guide the social responsibility of companies demonstrate numerous loopholes. As such the responsibility of, Ã¢â¬Å"safeguarding the social and environmental rights of poor people as they come into contact with multinational corporations cannot be left solely to the discretion of those corporationsÃ¢â¬ (Pendleton, 2004,p.6). Pendleton observes that in both the developed and developing worlds there exists numerous rules and regulations that companies have to abide to but there is variation from one nation to another with regard to how the controls are enforced. Consensus among many policymakers is that there is a broad agreement that the government has a significant role in formulating and facilitating the most appropriate mechanisms that can result in holding corporations to account for their actions. In its report titled, Ã¢â¬Å"Beyond VoluntarismÃ¢â¬ the international body concerned with human rights, International Council on Human Rights Policy noted that Ã¢â¬Å"If self-regulation and market forces were the best way to ensure respect for human rights, one might expect since this has been done the dominant parad igm, the number of abuses attributed to companies to have diminished. In fact, in many parts of the world, the experience of workers and communities is precisely the oppositeÃ¢â¬ (Pendleton, 2004, p.5). The human rights watch group content that, MNCs activities in developing countries need to be regulated and the specific governments in developing countries can play an essential role in ensuring these regulation takes place. The government is given the responsibility to incorporate international law to regulate MNCs in their regions and MNCs powers should be limited by having in place a prevention code governing their conduct (Pendleton, 2004, p.5; Tripathi, 2010). An Implementation Plan presented at the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in South Africa, shows that various governments should move with speed to, Ã¢â¬Å"actively promote corporate responsibility and accountability, including through the full development and effective implementation of intergovernmental ag reements and measures, international initiatives and public-private partnerships and appropriate national regulation regulationsÃ¢â¬ (Pendleton, 2004, p.6). On its report, the Government of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s industrial safety report noted that the government has a significant role to play towards ensuring the safety of plants, especially those operated by the MNCs. For instance, the report establishes that the government should accomplish the following: build and maintain an overall safety and health culture in all plants that operate in the country; design appropriate and suitable control systems of compliance, enforcement and incentives for better compliance; provide administrative and necessary technical support services; and establish and develop the research and development capability in emerging areas of risks and provide for effective control measures. In addition, it should focus on prevention strategies and monitoring performance through improved data collection system on p lant accidents and other related activities in industries; development and provision of the necessary technical manpower and knowledge in the critical areas of industrial safety and environment; and continue to establish effective mechanisms that can be used to enhance community awareness regarding industrial safety and the environment. Moreover, it plays a part in designing and providing in advance effective enforcement machinery as well as suitable provision for compensation and rehabilitation of affected persons; effectively putting into application laws and regulations concerning industrial safety, health and the general environment through adequate and elaborative inspection system. Other aspects worth noting include ensuring employers and employees and other people affected by the particular industry have distinctive and separate but complementary responsibilities and rights particularly to achieving safe industrial working environment; making changes to the existing laws and regulations related to industrial safety and align them with relevant international instruments; and lastly by monitoring the adoption of national standards through regulatory authorities (Government of India, n.d). Government agencies have a responsibility to ensure policies of the government concerning safety are observed. For instance, agencies are given powers to issue permits, licenses, carry out feasibility studies, conduct monitoring, and evaluation of various plants and as an overall duty, ensure industries or plants adhere to total quality assurance practices. Bhopal disaster indicated how the government agencies relaxed on their duty if not a requirement. When industries flout in their safety policies without government agencies sounding alarm, then in great measure they are abrogating in their duties. Agencies, unlike the government, are full of technocrats in their specific area and their role is to see implementation of the government policies with any failure. When the agencies fail in their duty then according to the law, they have acted out of negligence which they should bear legal responsibility for such negligence. Which criteria should be used in determining compensation for the Victims? Compensation for the Bhopal disaster victims has been a long and bitter battle for justice both in Indian and American courts (Engel and Martin, 2006). Five methods have been suggested by Engel and Martin which the company can use to ease the tension or go over the case: Ã¢â¬Å"covering the evidence, devaluing the victims, reinterpreting the events, utilizing official investigations in response to the event and intimidating and bribing the victimsÃ¢â¬ (Engel and Martin, 2006). However, which is the appropriate compensation scheme for the victims? There exist principal methods of compensating victims of any particular accident and these methods include the common law action for damages; workmenÃ¢â¬â¢s compensation; medical benefits insurance; other form s of personal accident insurance and social welfare payment. Looking at the Bhopal disaster and how compensation was facilitated, it became evident that the compensation scheme was individual-based, where the criterion mainly put into consideration the: deaths, and injuries the victims suffed. In its nature, the system shows numerous loopholes, for instance, determining to extend and magnitude of individual injury and equating it with Ã¢â¬ËappropriateÃ¢â¬â¢ amount of money largely appear impossible. Also, an individualistic system is mostly economically oriented postulating that perfect compensation in terms of money for the victim will bring out total healing. The suggestion is that for a total and more comprehensive compensation scheme to be realized then there is a need for a holistic investigation, analysis and determination of the emotional, psychological, physical, environmental and societal injury the victim has undergone and the broad consequences the injury has affected the victim in terms of these aspects. The Indian government took the responsibility of carrying out compensation to the victims using Ã¢â¬Å"a multi-tier grievance redressal systemÃ¢â¬ (Mahapatra, 2010, p.1) a conservative system of compensation that even when some victims went to court to challenge it, the supreme Indian Court did little to subvert the government policy it had adopted on the victim compensation(Mahapatra, 2010). This compensation scheme was primarily based on specific individuals for death or injury; therefore, it was an individual-based distribution scheme. It failed to respond to the severe medical and social consequences of the Bhopal disaster (Kibel, 1999). As such, this individual-based scheme needs to be integrated with community-based distributions for it to be appropriate (Kibel, 1999). The community-based distributions will be essential in providing funds to the institutions, programs, and services that are involved in serving the larger collective gro up of persons poisoned and injured especially those of Bhopal accident (Kibel, 1999). This, in turn, will contribute to long-term relief of the survivors. Under the community-model of compensation, Indian government instead of individually compensating the individuals can invest in modern hospitals, staff and facilities, invest in programs and services to address soil detoxification and family relocation, invest in schools, programs for job retraining and new housing construction with aim of improving long-term social security benefits for the victims of the disaster(Kibel, 1999). To ensure speedy and fair compensation for the victims, a transparency report analysis of the victims is necessary and also coordination of crucial government agencies need to work in harmony and transparent manner. The most critical agencies that should oversee their activities related to victim compensation include health, legal, and the treasury. A fair compensation criterion is only viable when the age ncies facilitating the compensation process are able to design the scheme purely by considering the various and interrelated factors that are perceived to be associated with the injured victim. In this regard, factors of social, economic, emotional, psychological, environmental, and physical need to be incorporated in designing an effective, fair compensation scheme. Therefore, the proposition is that assessment of damages on the part of the victim should be thorough, transparent, efficient, and non-bias for fair and fulfilling compensation to be realized. Courts responsible for handling the Bhopal victimsÃ¢â¬â¢ case MNCs for a long time have operated within the legal principles of Ã¢â¬Å"separation of corporate identity and Ã¢â¬Ëforum non-conveniens,Ã¢â¬â¢ and the effects of these principles has been that MNCs operate with double standardsÃ¢â¬ (Meeran, 1999, p.1). As it will be evident from the developing countries, the legal justice systems are relatively weak and loophol ed an opportunity MNCs will want to exploit especially in liability cases (Strike, Gao and Bansal, 2006). Bhopal disaster offers a candid example whereby UCL fought for the case to be facilitated by the Indian courts claiming that the accident took place in India, involving Indians and therefore it was Ã¢â¬ËrightfulÃ¢â¬â¢ for the Indian courts to carry out the case instead of the American courts. The corporate veil law gives the parent company owning subsidiary plant in another region a break from being held responsible in legal terms for any behaviors regarded as unlawful by the subsidiary plant and the MNCs are only seen and recognized to be shareholders (Meeran, 1999, p.1). Therefore, citing the Bhopal case and considering the law in place, it becomes clear that the Indian country is the custodian to Bhopal disaster case and not America, although ultimate justice may be a pipe-dream. When MNCs escapes responsibilities of their subsidiary plants the victims who suffer become d ifficult for them to achieve meaningful justice redress (Meeran, 1999, p.1). Therefore, what is needed is the development of commercial law in relation to MNCs to ensure that significant cases involving MNCs are tried and litigated in a country that appear and demonstrate the ability of being cost-effective especially relieving the burden of the defendant and also in a country that seems to be, Ã¢â¬Å"clearly and distinctly more appropriate forum in which the victim is assured to receive genuine justiceÃ¢â¬ (Meeran, 1999, p.1; Anon, 2010). International law framework is growing at a commendable speed and the interesting but encouraging thing about the law is its ability to institute effective mechanisms of holding corporations accountable for their actions (Association for WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Rights in Development, 2008, p.1). The modern world operates on the conviction that political, social and environmental policy and an effective human rights model is critical and essential in est ablishing a fair, just and equal society (Association for WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Rights in Development, 2008, p.1). Today both the government and corporation are bestowed with legal responsibility, especially with regard to violation of human rights. The International Criminal Court has in its structures established a legal mechanism that tries to see government and corporations operate in the best interests with aim to promote and enhance human rights. Although corporations have resisted these attempts of regulation by the international law enforcement agents claiming that their voluntary initiatives coupled with codes of conduct are enough to ensure sufficient protection of human rights, the international law agencies have remained steadfast and argued that corporations need to bear economic and legal obligations and accountability for their actions (Association for WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Rights in Development, 2008, p.1). In ensuring the adherence to principles of human rights the international criminal court has emphasized that corporations that violate human rights in any nature should be accountable and compensate in terms of indemnification, restitution and rehabilitation for the accident incurred to an individual when violation of such individualÃ¢â¬â¢s rights takes place. When Bhopal disaster took place, there was gross violation of human rights by the parent and subsidiary companies involved. People lost lives, others were seriously injured and impaired while others deformed, and the overall environment of the region was destroyed. Hence these events account for gross violation of human rights which in turn prompts the international court to hold both the government of India and UCL Company for failure to ensure security of people and the environment and thus be accountable both legally and economically to the victims of the disaster. To what extent are courts appropriate in resolving international liability cases? International liability cases exhibit more compet ing interests between the parties interested in the case and therefore, any forum apart from court is likely to be influenced or biased by the weighty issue of the matter. The court system appears to have well defined procedural conduct and code of carrying out its operation that manifests no or less bias. The panel of judges is largely guided by strict code of ethics and therefore, their decisions are likely to be impartial and less influenced by the interested parties. But at the same time, there are other avenues that the court can refer the parties to in an outside-court resolution of the dispute. Such forums include conflict resolution institutions, board committees, citizen dispute settlement programs, and multi-door tribunal. To ensure fairness the court can keep some relative form of involvement in the alternative dispute resolution mechanism. What corporate and business policies should firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ adopt in order to minimize occurrence of major accidents? With increasing c ompetition, there is likelihood that firms may engage in activities that may compromise the safety of employees, community, and environment (Fatima, 2007). It is against this background that corporate social responsibility policies and business code of conducts are becoming popular as frameworks that guide the various operations of the firms (Economist Intelligence Unit, 2005). In 2004, Economic Intelligence Unit carried out a research that established that there is increasing emphasis on corporate responsibility and this was having an effect on how various companies related with their stakeholders such as investors, customers, suppliers, employees, communities and governments (Economist Intelligence Unit, 2005). In another survey conducted the same year involving 166 executives of the various companies and 65 investors, it was observed that: CSR was becoming a central and critical consideration in investments decisions (85%). The three vital aspects of CSR identified by the respond ents were ethical behavior of staff, good corporate government, and transparency of corporate dealings. Finally, the respondents also identified the importance of CSR to enhance firmÃ¢â¬â¢s brand (Economist Intelligence Unit, 2005). The risks presented by forces of globalization, competition, increasing technology coupled with growing business Ã¢â¬ËmisbehaviorÃ¢â¬â¢ for the stakeholders and the environment have necessitated need for corporate social responsibility programs to ensure businesses create and improve their ability to function within the precepts of sustainable development (Rooyen, 2007). In return, CSR has provided continuous benefits to the business and its stakeholders despite the size of the business and once a business operate within well-defined guidelines, and the business entity becomes more competitive because of enforcing a workable CSR policy (Rooyen, 2007). As a result, Rooyen notes that Ã¢â¬Å"the attraction of corporate social responsibility for many b usinesses is that it can help to increase sustainability without creating negative effectsÃ¢â¬ (Rooyen, 2007, p.1). Activities of MNCs have Ã¢â¬Å"prompted international organizations, the media, human rights groups, social investors and consumers, as well as some corporate executives, to discuss the responsibility MNCs shareÃ¢â¬ in promoting social safety and stability of the society (Bennett, 2002). Social responsibility includes both the economic and legal obligation but also reflects, Ã¢â¬Å"Ethical standards or judgments of social desirabilityÃ¢â¬ (Boatright, 2003 cited in Bacher, 2007, p.9). In its broadest definition and operation, social responsibility is further seen to include the environmental responsibility and the concern for sustainability, whereby these, Ã¢â¬Å"additional behaviors and activities are not necessarily codified into law but are expected of business by societyÃ¢â¬â¢s membersÃ¢â¬ (Carroll, 1979 cited in Bacher, 2007, p.9). As such, corporate social responsibility (CSR) has come to characterize MNCs operations in the developing countries. Although it constitutes varying meanings, CSR definition is adopted to indicate that: private sector firms have a responsibility to ensure that they do not contribute to the violations of human rights and that they promote and respect of these rights and respect needs to be observed in terms of employee core labor standards. Besides, MNCs have to ensure that local communities benefit from larger companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operations in the developing nations; that there is responsible management of environmental impacts of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operations, including emissions, waste and use of sustainable resources, as well as avoid cases of corruption and increase transparency in their business practices. Moreover, there is need for incorporation of social and environmental criteria in procurement decisions (Unden, 2007). The concept of corporate social responsibility gained momentum during the per iod of intense globalization between the 1950s and 1970s (Bacher, 2007). These periods saw post-war investments by the America companies in Europe and Japan intensify and as a result, most of the USA companies put a lot of their capital in these nations; consequently, the corporation grew in size and power (Bacher, 2007). As MNCs activities intensified abroad, social issues such as poverty, racism and unemployment together with environmental degradation became the focal issues that attracted numerous requests for the companies to modify their roles and take more significant part in community involvement and activities (Bacher, 2007). The initial corporate social responsibility outlines were concerned with how to secure and maximize profits for the shareholders, but as time elapsed, social and ethical responsibilities started to attract attention especially after acceleration in some big-scale corporate wrongdoing such as tax evasion and exploitation of foreign governments by the man ipulation of transfer prices (Bacher, 2007). CSR and business ethics advocates postulate, Ã¢â¬Å"Corporations have an interest in leveraging their skills and impact to promote stability in their areas of operation, not only because it is the right thing to do, but also because it makes good business senseÃ¢â¬ (Bennett, 2002). In order to Ã¢â¬ËpoliceÃ¢â¬â¢ the operations of the MNCs, traditional human groups have utilized international law to ensure these corporations are not complicit in human rights abuses and the overall general consensus has been that MNCs operating across borders need to take responsibility for the effects of their operations on the local environment and population (Bennett, 2002). Multinational corporations have been seen to challenge the ability of sovereign nations to control corporate operations and impacts where they appear to be too big and powerful (Boatright, 2003 cited in Bacher, 2007). At the same time, unregulated operations of the MNCs have th rived due to poor enforcement of the international law which has led to vacuum that only self-imposed, enforced and monitored standards can fill, making it a risky undertaking (Bacher, 2007). When these MNCs show laxity in their corporate operation, the public concern heightens due to lack of a representative to champion the interests of the society. Generally, what becomes evident among these MNCs is the lack of social and environmental responsibility, where social responsibility arises from social power that MNCs possess (Bacher, 2007). In some cases, self-imposed standards have existed, but they have been limited to addressing only the interests of the corporation and the avenues where the corporation function-market (Bacher, 2007). CSR has been viewed by others to be costly, and therefore reduce the profitability of the firm. However, the basis here can be that business as an entity has responsibility to numerous and diverse groups in society and not just owners of the business (Corporate social responsibility, n.d). The responsibility further extends to the natural environment and the community. With the growing awareness among the people and increasing risks created or initiated by businesses, it becomes costly to a company if it does not act responsibly or if the general perception believes, the business is not being responsible to its stakeholders. Therefore any meaningful balance between well created CSR policies and guidelines and the cost associated in implementing them have a chance to re-brand the image of the business, increase stakeholders confidence in the business and also reduces legal costs for the business and in the long-run the benefits for the business will outweigh the initial costs of implementation. Critical ethical issues from the Bhopal disaster The Bhopal disaster is an event that revealed how ethical behavior can elapse at full watch by key stakeholders such as the government, organs of the government and the companies involved. T herefore, because of the disaster, critical ethical issues emerged specifically from the tragedy itself, the conduct, and reaction of the UCL Company, the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s role, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to ensure appropriate safety measures and standards and lastly the agony of the victims due to delayed justice. When the tragedy took place, the first reaction of the UCL Company was to deny and distance itself from drama claiming the Indian plant was fully responsible. Further, the company accused one of its employees to have carried out Ã¢â¬Ëa sabotage missionÃ¢â¬â¢ in a Ã¢â¬ËrevengeÃ¢â¬â¢ attack. Ethically how can UCL, with majority shares in Indian plant, deny its responsibility to the tragedy? How is the current law concerning MNCs contribute to MNCs evasion of duties due to the inappropriate behaviors of the subsidiary plants and hence is it ethical for such law to continue operating in such form? Further is it ethically for MNCs continue controlling their subsid iary plants in terms of daily operations but in an event of accident leave the responsibilities to the plant in an effort to evade duties and if so, what should be the extend of MNCs involvement in activities of their subsidiary plants? On its part, was it ethical for the Indian government to grant the company land in a densely populated region even after studies showing the dangers of such undertaking was carried out? Was it ethical for the same government to entrust the company with full responsibilities of enacting safety standards without regulation or monitoring mechanisms in place? Why was the government reluctant to inspect the equipment of the company to ensure its safety and sustainability? Was it ethical for the state government of Madhya Pradesh to deny the citizens of Bhopal critical safety information that would have enlightened them on the possibility of disaster occurring (Frewen, 2010)? For UCL Company, how was there reaction? Why did they not alert people? Why were the alarms not functioning? After the tragedy, UCL CEO came to India but was arrested by the state of Madhya Pradesh police before the New Delhi government intervened and secretly deported him, therefore, was it ethical for the company to deport the CEO when charges against him were abundant (Frewen, 2010)? And up to now, the CEO is still free and comfortable, while victims loathe in suffering and despair, hence is it ethical for the legal and government institutions to continue with their laxity in ensuring justice is done? Then lastly on the compensation of the victims, was it done in an ethical manner of fairness and justice, putting in place numerous factors as a result of the disaster? Did the compensation meet the emotional, psychological, and physical torture of the victims, how ethical should the compensation system be carried out? Is it moral for justice to victims to continue being delayed? And how ethical can the government, agencies of government, and the company ensure future business operations do not pose risks to the citizen? In short, Bhopal disaster demonstrate ethical issues that can be seen to originate from a chain of development of technology where the decision to operate a dangerous plant in a densely populated region, which did not have capacity for technical and institutional infrastructure to support it, compromised decisions in terms of giving the facility the necessary safety standards. This is in addition to failure to properly operate and ensure the facility is well maintained and more sorrowfully and ethically wrong the failed position of the government and industry to look beyond the legal issues and in a humane manner attend to the needs and justice of the victims. All these questions revolve around the ethicality of events that surrounds the Bhopal disaster, which when investigated, can reveal how corporate social responsibility frameworks and policies are necessary for the business. How should corporate responsibility toward environmental protection, worker, and community safety change? Evidence from the developing nations is that MNCs are operating in such countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ importÃ¢â¬â¢ CSR from their home countries with less regard to the varying and interrelated factors that exist and affect the overall existence and operation of business in developing countries. Therefore, when the implementation process starts, it becomes clear that achieving the goals or connecting the CSR policies to critical stakeholders do not succeed. What is needed in new CSR policies are that the culture, values, norms of the host country regarding work, environment and community need to be studied and incorporated (Waldman, Luque, Washburn and House, n.d; Robertson and Fadil, 1999). Further community affected by the activities of the company need to be integrated into decision-making processes on what particular responsibilities should the company working in their area be involved in. This will make the CSR policies to re flect the specific societal issues and concerns in which they intend to operate. At the same time, most stakeholders in developing countries have little understanding of the CSR and therefore, education, training and public awareness need to be incorporated in the CSR designed for these countries. The role of government need not be ignored as a key and powerful institution controlling activities in which MNCs operate (Porter and Kramer, n.d). The government assumes a principal responsibility in ensuring effective and appropriate CSR work within the established framework. For the Bhopal tragedy, the voluntary aspects that the company would have done include: public education and awareness on the importance and dangers of MIC, establishing an emergency communication system for efficiency in case of disaster and participating in a continuous environment safety auditing of their facility to ensure defaulters are detected early. Conclusion Globalization is a phenomenon that cannot be ign ored especially its impacts of internationalization (Bennett, 2002). CorporationsÃ¢â¬â¢ movement to the developing nations is proving to be profitable, especially with consideration of the reduction in the cost of factors of production available in these regions. Nevertheless, the presence of big corporation wielding a lot of influence and power has resulted in these corporations participating in numerous Ã¢â¬ËmisbehaviorsÃ¢â¬â¢ and later using legal mechanisms to evade the responsibilities. The corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s misbehavior is manifested in the prolonged environmental destruction, overexploitation of resources, poor working conditions for its employees and even endangering the safety of the larger community. As a way of regulating and ensuring appropriate business conduct and behavior is promoted, CSR and codes of conduct are fast-becoming requirements for the corporations to adhere to. At the same time, existing literature postulates the role the parent MNCs can foster to its subsidiary plants, especially in developing countries. When compared to the operations in their home countries, MNCs are seen to adhere to the regulatory and law institutions more strictly and this has resulted in stricter corporate social responsibility being observed. Moreover, beyond complying with the increasingly stringent regulations, most MNCs are determined to preserve their ethical image, avoid serious legal liabilities, satisfy the safety concerns of the employees, consumers and the communities they are working with. In addition, they need to respond to government regulators and other stakeholders and develop new safer business in order to remain competitive in the world market (Wehrmeyer and Mulugetta, 1999). Therefore, since most MNCs in their home countries have been able to adopt global standards established by the international trade and investment organizations, the same organizations have to exert influence on their subsidiary plants to adopt global standards o f proactive environmental management strategies (Wehrmeyer and Mulugetta, 1999). International certification such as ISA 9000 also can be adopted by MNCs in their subsidiary plants since such certification ensures firms total quality management (TQM) measures have been met and therefore environmental, social, and economic safety of it is constituentÃ¢â¬â¢s plants can be guaranteed (Wehrmeyer and Mulugetta, 1999). At the same time, the corporations can use international standards such as Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) and also ISO 14000 to instruct its constituent plants to adopt and adhere to such global corporate management systems. Therefore, it will be necessary for the MNCs corporations to adopt and implement sustainable CSR and the role of the government should be to ensure these corporationsÃ¢â¬â¢ operations are carried out within proper legal framework. References Anon. (2010). Transnational Corporations Liability for environment Harms. Retrieved from http://inves ting.blogandinfo.com/2010/08/07/transnational-corporations-liability-for-environmental-harms/. Association for WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Rights in Development. (2008). State and Corporations: Legal Responsibilities to the People. Retrieved from awid.org/eng/Issues-and-Analysis/Library/States-and-Corporations-Legal-Responsibilities-to-the-People. Bacher, C. (2007). Corporate Social Responsibility. Germany, GRIN Verlag. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=-PQpZmyf9L0Cpg=PA2dq=MNCs+and+social+responsibilityhl=enei=A9i_TMzeG9O6jAes0fjRCQsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=1ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepageq=MNCs%20and%20social%20responsibilityf=false. Bennett, J. (2002). Multinational Corporations, Social Responsibility and Conflict. Journal of International Affairs. Retrieved from http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=vq=cache:toM2Hu2dwHkJ:info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/57510/bennett_article.pdf+multinational+CORPORATIONS+AND+NEED+FOR+CORPORATE+SOCIAL+RESPONSIBILITYhl=engl=kepid=blsrcid=ADGEE SjXZY9UN34ztcEnOoqes_EgNyh00Ul02jE7Jik3OukCp08X6NStm2rLgkWpkAiqXUtW7HP8F4qqDjy4FD8IVwMoGnstmcZrS-bhej3PRQaFd1TVQ0IdNZ-4SUzoQc_5OFeoXWumsig=AHIEtbQ9IkXxDk1Nfw2fAcST8Agwhl5sUw. Corporate social responsibility. (N.d). Corporate social responsibility-introduction. Retrieved from http://tutor2u.net/business/strategy/corporate-social-responsibility-introduction.html. Economic Intelligence Unit. (2005). The importance of corporate responsibility. A white paper from the Economist Intelligence Unit sponsored by Oracle. Retrieved from http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=vq=cache:oU2cqVu7gCwJ:graphics.eiu.com/files/ad_pdfs/eiuOracle_CorporateResponsibility_WP.pdf+corporate+social+responsibilities:+what+is+their+importancehl=engl=kepid=blsrcid=ADGEESj5xwYumiWSCvijm5783lARdEKVN6yFMrfJpTE-N8HB1FpxfpW7rfDt5w-soIh8rRk3T_Jct_YAfprHAgsA2qILKhDZ5FoqGNdK-aWqePO79vnWex2ehhzRKXjY2rhWzgBUBePEsig=AHIEtbTE201jawHDYPXxoiAlFEmT555YJA Engel, S. and Martin, B. (2006). Union Carbide and James Hardie: lessons in poli tics and power. Global Society: Journal of Interdisciplinary International Relations. Retrieved from bmartin.cc/pubs/06globalsociety.html. Fadil, P. A. (1998). Developing corporate codes of ethics in multinational firms: Bhopal revisited. Journal of Managerial Issues. Retrieved from allbusiness.com/human-resources/employee-development-employee-ethics/733935-1.html. Fatima, S. (2007). MNCs and Globalization: An overview of the role of multinational companies in global business. Retrieved from suite101.com/content/mncs-and-globalization-a21062. Frewen, J. (2010). Industrial Accidents and Global Inequality: The Contrasting Cases of Bhopal and BP Horizon Deepwater. Retrieved from globalcrisisnews.com/environment/industrial-accidents-and-global-inequity-the-contrasting-cases-of-bhopal-and-bp-horizon-deepwater/id=1810/. Gennip, J. V. (2005). 171 ESC 05 E-Policy Implications of the Risk Society. NATO Parliamentary Assembly. Retrieved from nato-pa.int/default.asp?SHORTCUT=672. Government of India. (N.d). National Policy on Safety, Health and Environment at Work Place. Retrieved from http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=vq=cache:E5fWowjdJc4J:www.labour.nic.in/policy/OSH-Policy.pdf+what+should+be+the+responsibility+of+the+government+in+ensuring+industrial+safetyhl=engl=kepid=blsrcid=ADGEESh1euW5HYGnuDKMX_8l-s80EEaRZyApAuvm5cCwz_XjdC7Z9aMWAvJAj_uOqVmC4xsVjb_-M4lHqkkiS4VQzIjTKyfNm7S1OFPYboyHZY8r_M1Az6ozgdDw6df9txC61dm5TKCnsig=AHIEtbS94NW0kv2_Ceu8uZbZw-dSHjGVtA Jong, G. D. and Vo, D. V. (2010). The impact of institutional environment on the autonomy of MNCs subsidiaries. Problems andÃ Perspectives in Management, Vol.8, Issue.2. Retrieved from http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=vq=cache:dnQcTMVgqO0J:www.businessperspectives.org/journals_free/ppm/PPM_EN_2010_02_Jong.pdf+the+extend+majority+can+be+used+to+determine+MNCs+ownership+of+their+subsidiarieshl=engl=kepid=blsrcid=ADGEESiaWwGxUInkMDb8Q99k_9EaGuBCV8Ze4DDHvMS7b799P7tvEUz7qmghJUIZtUDM1Uegx1YSE8na4zRs0D02x7xJQOlk7f3S3F-scw_sBGj aIHtCv9cpwEQVnrKd6siGh4rdJUsgsig=AHIEtbT_B3k6KrGpU_l44z7aC2mtJUSYoQ. Kibel, P. S. (1999). The earth on trial: environmental law on the international stage. NY, Routledge. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=bllPycgvZiICpg=PA102lpg=PA102dq=appropriate+compensation+scheme+for+Bhopal+victimssource=blots=EIBmSBGHZZsig=of6XWrqJ1LFeNrwis8x-5pH7fNshl=enei=81vATOXTPJKTjAe21MCNCgsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=2ved=0CBkQ6AEwAQ#v=onepageq=appropriate%20compensation%20scheme%20for%20Bhopal%20victimsf=false. Lata, P. and Kumar, S. (2010). Communicate To Conquer: A Handbook Of Group Discussion And Job Interviews (DVD). New Delhi, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=M4GmTjpfCQYCpg=PA49dq=globalization+and+negative+effects+of+MNCshl=enei=hcC_TLWiL5DQjAenutXdCQsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=9ved=0CF0Q6AEwCA#v=onepageq=globalization%20and%20negative%20effects%20of%20MNCsf=false. Mahapatra, D. (2010). Adequacy of Bhopal Claims Act and compensation scheme. The Times of India. Retrieved from http://blogs.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/legallythinking/entry/adequacy-of-bhopal-claims-act. Meeran, R. (1999). Liability of Multinational Corporations: A Critical Stage. Retrieved from labournet.net/images/cape/campanal.htm Pendleton, A. (2004). The real face of corporate social responsibility. Journal of Consumer Policy Review. Retrieved from allbusiness.com/legal/laws-government-regulations-environmental/946545-1.html. Porter, M. E. and Kramer, M. R. (N.d). Strategy and Society: The Link between Competitive and Corporate Social Responsibility. (Attached notes). Robertson, C., and Fadil, P. A. (1999). Ethical Decision Making in Multinational Organizations: A Culture-Based Model. Journal of Business Ethics. (Attached notes). Rooyen, J. V. (2007). The role of corporate social responsibility in modern business development. Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Role-of-Corporate-Social-Responsibility-in-Modern-Business-Developmentid=4 55618. Shrivastava. (N.d). Union Carbide Corporation: Industrial Plant Accident (Bhopal, India). (Attached notes). Spero, J. E. and, Hart, J. A. (2009). The Politics of International Economic Relations. MA, Cengage Learning. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=tifacOtJpwACpg=PA299dq=globalization+and+negative+effects+of+MNCshl=enei=hcC_TLWiL5DQjAenutXdCQsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=5ved=0CEYQ6AEwBA#v=onepageq=globalization%20and%20negative%20effects%20of%20MNCsf=false. Strike, V. M., Gao, J., and Bansal P. (2006). Being good while being bad: social responsibility and the international diversification of US firms. Journal of International Business Studies. (Attached notes). Tripathi, S. (2010). Responsibilities beyond Borders. Institute for Human Rights and Business. Retrieved from institutehrb.org/blogs/staff/responsibilities_beyond_borders.html. Unden, C. (2007). Multinational Corporations and Spillovers in Vietnam: Adding Corporate Social Responsibility. Retrieved from http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=vq=cache:WnUppvCelA8J:www.csr-weltweit.de/uploads/tx_jpdownloads/FDI_CSR_Vietnam.pdf+How+can+MNCs+incorporate+environmental+and+safety+measures+intheir+technologies+for+the+developing+nationshl=engl=kepid=blsrcid=ADGEESgya88EcdZD0stjdMTJcfBa8io6zci2NKTAbxPaIgGFS2N9uAU9E87PeTx2qEjcoJRsl9hUOuWufXYY1TJ6PdwlqHO5_Co1LoMkxqTSIucdoFF_6lvK_ezcMAMm-vAFWORpJ4rzsig=AHIEtbRGQNKqS71NH-QMtKIE6Ry3vAG9xQUnger, S. H. (1994). Controlling technology: ethics and the responsible engineer. Wiley-IEEE. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=23b64xeqUnECpg=PA74dq=how+Indian+government+failed+in+its+responsibility+during+the+Bhopaldisasterhl=enei=NFDATKf4IsyNjAfNzp3PCQsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=1ved=0CCcQ6AEwAA#v=onepageqf=false. Waldman, D. A., Luque, M. S., Washburn, N. and House, R. J. (N.d). Cultural and Leadership predictors of corporate social responsibility values of top management: a Global study of 15 countries. Journal of International Business Studies. (Attached notes). Wehrmeyer, W. and Mulugetta, Y. (1999). Growing pains: environmental management in developing countries. UK, Greenleaf Publishing. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=Ub2LHoEhZlUCpg=PA86dq=safety+performance+by+MNCs+companieshl=enei=8DXATNvgCtG6jAfE6tSLCgsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=6ved=0CEYQ6AEwBQ#v=onepageq=safety%20performance%20by%20MNCs%20companiesf=false.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
The Bean Trees - Essay Example merican parental rights and issues related to a psychological realm often operated within the context of myriad literary age concerned with the coming of an age is handled uniquely and brilliantly in the novel. Coming of an age which is quite interlinked with the themes of transition, metamorphosis and advancement of growing time or approach of old age is the central theme of many texts. The plot of the Ã¢â¬Å"The Bean TreesÃ¢â¬ demands a unique representation of the theme. The Ã¢â¬Å"BildungsromanÃ¢â¬ or coming of an age is typical of a genre which focuses on the psychological development of the protagonist that comes with the maturity of his or her growing chronological age too. The genre of the novel also speaks about the quest for an answer or experience quite evident through the life of the protagonist of Ã¢â¬Å"The Bean TreesÃ¢â¬ . The genre also presents a conflict between the sensitive person and the society in which he lives and this conflict gives oxygen to the development of the plot. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Bean TreesÃ¢â¬ , Taylor with her trajectory in her old bug learns new phase of life with weird experiences of getting a baby child to meeting Mattie, who is an ocean of wisd om in terms of perceiving life. The plot, character portrayal, theme, setting and language of the novel from the outset represents the sound and hue of Kentucky life. The trajectory of Taylor, the protagonist of the novel and her meeting with the baby girl whom she names Turtle builds not only the plot of the novel but at every stage, her encounter with new people and their life style displays a set of colourful characters. The syntax and the language of the novel are quite lucid and full of colloquial terminologies launches the novel almost into a paradigm of folklore. The discovery of motherhood is almost like encountering an accident by carefree, independent, young girl named Taylor and her story of love, friendship, abandonment and sudden revelation of resources that are surprising in an area which
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Income determination - Research Proposal Example Consequently, this topic has become attractive making many researchers to shift attention towards the same as a vital dissertation topic. Surprisingly, unearthing the variety of macroeconomic and microeconomic factors to be incorporated in the computation of income, stands erected as the major stumbling block despite the recent research benchmarked against much effort and focus peddled to weed out this phenomenon. According the research findings of Michael Sare pegged at showcasing the inevitable and direct relationship between income distribution and macroeconomic factors, (The Cross Country 1997), real depreciation for LDCs, trade improvements, higher income, growth rates, and high investment rates are the vital variables associated to regional income determination. A reciprocal relation is also looming between investment and growth-facilitating policies and enhancement of in income distribution. Public expenditures and inflation are the centerpieces as policy variables that have greater magnitudes on income distribution. Income distribution attaches so little to inflation fluctuations, price ratio of investment, external position, level of real change and changes in public consumptions. People employ a tendency to trade off between equity and growth and attaches disadvantaged economic segments as the significant beneficiaries of economic growth. According to Deininger and Squire (1996), unearths beneficial evidence linking proceeding growth to initial income disparity. Bruno, Ravallion and Squire (1996), showcased that subsequent growth is attached to preceding distributed endowments of income and assets, and that, poverty eradication impacts is more felt by LDCs as compared to developed countries based on growth processes. With respect to Milanovik (1994), sets to illustrate unique reason behind lower income inequalities in developed nations as resulting from not only significant of social choice elements such as employment and
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Speech on racism Essay Selection of essay topics is not an easy task. Usually students are assigned to select essay topics for their essay writing. Once they have selected the essay topics, the other problem is of writing a suitable and persuasive essay for that selected essay topic. After having an essay topic in your hand, you start thinking about points that should be included in that essay topic. There are many essay topics, which are informative essay topics, literature essay topics, narrative essay topics, research essay topics, controversial essay topics, descriptive essay topics, history essay topics, classification essay topics, application essay topics, analysis essay topics, argumentative essay topics, admission essay topics, compare and contrast essay topics, cause and effect essay topics, English essay topics, argument essay topics and college application essay topics. For all kinds of essay topics, the written essay should be effectual and persuasive. 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Our writers are trained professionals who are aware of all academic rules and regulations regarding academic writing. Our writers are fully equipped with all the knowledge related to different linguistic patterns and academic writing styles. The is a great number of essay topics and CustomWritings.com is ready to help you with any of them you would like to choose. Our creative essay writers can write for different essay topics such as informative essay topics, literature essay topics, narrative essay topics, research essay topics, controversial essay topics, descriptive essay topics, history essay topics, classification essay topics, application essay topics, analysis essay topics, argumentative essay topics, admission essay topics, compare and contrast essay topics, cause and effect essay topics, English essay topics, argument essay topics and college application essay topics. You can get good essay topics from our custom essay writing company, which cares for you and your career. 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Friday, November 15, 2019
Lolita: The Etymology of a Nymphet The novel Lolita concerns a relationship characterized by obsession by a middle aged man, Humbert, for a prepubescent girl, Lolita. This fictional relationship has been a source of many questions as to what the writer, Vladimir Nabokov, had in mind when he wrote the novel. Thus, the novel has been looked at from different aspects in attempting to come up with what it portrays. Humbert, in his flowery description of Lolita, uses the word "nymphet" to refer not only to her but also to other girls of her age and characteristics. Little girls that came his way before Lolita, he describes as nymphets too. The purpose of this analysis will be to discover what exactly Humbert refers to as a nymphet in the novel Lolita in relation to the type of image today's society sees as a nymphet with the goal of establishing whether or not the novel portrays the influence of a nymphet. It will attempt to find the similarities and differences between the image of a nymphet that Lolita portrays and the real life image of today. The history of the word "nymphet" in English does not go beyond 1955 when the novel Lolita was published because its first use is in the novel. It was introduced into English by Mr. Humbert Humbert himself. Through his unique sexual perception, Humbert describes the behavior or the sexually luring ability of little girls as unnatural or nymphic: "Now I wish to introduce the following idea. Between the age limits of nine and fourteen there occur maidens who, to certain bewitched travelers, twice or many times older than they, reveal their true nature which is not human, but nymphic (that is, demoniac); and these chosen creatures I propose to designate as "nymphets (16)" Nymphic is adjectival for the noun 'nymph' and the Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia defines nymphs to be, in "Greek and Roman mythology, lesser divinities or spirits of nature, dwelling in groves and fountains, forests, meadows, streams, and the sea, represented as mortal and beautiful creatures that were sometimes love objects to olympian maidens, fond of music and dancing." They could also be "vengeful and destructive", a character that will be shown to work against Humbert, not physically, but emotionally. Humbert's image of a nymphet is enhanced by the thoughts and memories of Annabel that he harbors. He sees Lolita as a reincarnation of Annabel: "It was the same child - the same frail, honey-hued shoulders, the same silky supple bare back, the same chestnut head of hair" (39). Lolita: The Etymology of a Nymphet :: Essays Papers Lolita: The Etymology of a Nymphet The novel Lolita concerns a relationship characterized by obsession by a middle aged man, Humbert, for a prepubescent girl, Lolita. This fictional relationship has been a source of many questions as to what the writer, Vladimir Nabokov, had in mind when he wrote the novel. Thus, the novel has been looked at from different aspects in attempting to come up with what it portrays. Humbert, in his flowery description of Lolita, uses the word "nymphet" to refer not only to her but also to other girls of her age and characteristics. Little girls that came his way before Lolita, he describes as nymphets too. The purpose of this analysis will be to discover what exactly Humbert refers to as a nymphet in the novel Lolita in relation to the type of image today's society sees as a nymphet with the goal of establishing whether or not the novel portrays the influence of a nymphet. It will attempt to find the similarities and differences between the image of a nymphet that Lolita portrays and the real life image of today. The history of the word "nymphet" in English does not go beyond 1955 when the novel Lolita was published because its first use is in the novel. It was introduced into English by Mr. Humbert Humbert himself. Through his unique sexual perception, Humbert describes the behavior or the sexually luring ability of little girls as unnatural or nymphic: "Now I wish to introduce the following idea. Between the age limits of nine and fourteen there occur maidens who, to certain bewitched travelers, twice or many times older than they, reveal their true nature which is not human, but nymphic (that is, demoniac); and these chosen creatures I propose to designate as "nymphets (16)" Nymphic is adjectival for the noun 'nymph' and the Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia defines nymphs to be, in "Greek and Roman mythology, lesser divinities or spirits of nature, dwelling in groves and fountains, forests, meadows, streams, and the sea, represented as mortal and beautiful creatures that were sometimes love objects to olympian maidens, fond of music and dancing." They could also be "vengeful and destructive", a character that will be shown to work against Humbert, not physically, but emotionally. Humbert's image of a nymphet is enhanced by the thoughts and memories of Annabel that he harbors. He sees Lolita as a reincarnation of Annabel: "It was the same child - the same frail, honey-hued shoulders, the same silky supple bare back, the same chestnut head of hair" (39).
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Ã¢â¬ ¢What is the purpose of major crime-reporting programs? What makes a successful crime-reporting program in the United States? The purpose for major crime-reporting programs is to try to improve the methology and to publish the collective data. So by having major crime-reporting programs the law enforcement agencies are able to get information and also collect data to figure out the crime patterns of the nation instead of just one spot. This is hard though because not all of the crimes that end up happening get reported. So by this being said not everything can go into the crime-reporting programs.I think the government needs to try to find another way to get these Ã¢â¬Å"smallerÃ¢â¬ none reported crimes to be reported. What makes a successful crime reporting program in the United States is that most of the crimes do get reported the way that they should, and that the police officers are doing their job to the best of their abilities. I think it could be stepped up a notch an d maybe put camaras in the cruisers so the crimes that do not get reported at least have a sign to get reported. Ã¢â¬ ¢How do crime rates relate to arrest rates and clearance rates?Is there a way to improve the correlation between crime rates, arrest rates, and clearance rates in the effort to combat criminal activity? Crime rates are when the number is divided by the total number of crimes that are what they called Ã¢â¬Å"cleared. Ã¢â¬ This is when the crime is closed, finished or they found the criminal in whatever was going on with the crime. To combat criminal activity the police can gather the information from the UCR (uniform crime report). From what I was reading Ã¢â¬Å" clearance rates is the percentage of crimes that have been closed by arrest, exceptional means, etc. So in my opinion to help improve the correlation between crime rates, arrest rates and clearance rates, is to get all the facts straight. Do not jump from one to the other. Gather all the information that you can, and see what is going on, get cases closed or any old cases if they were closed because in significant evidence see if there is anything that you can do to change the out come and re-open the close case to get it closed the right way and find out what really happened. http://en. allexperts. com/q/Criminal-Law-916/2010/10/crime-rates. htm
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Mean temperatures are rising these may result in physiological and ecological effects on living organisms
Mean temperatures are rising Ã¢â¬â these may result in physiological and ecological effects on living organisms. Describe and explain these effects. Rising global temperatures, due to an increased concentration of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere, are likely to have enormous consequences on many, if not all, species. Although the effects may not be direct potential outcomes include: loss of habitat, reduced species diversity, disturbed food chains and weather cycles, denaturation of enzymes. One of the biggest potential issues of global warming is causing a rise to sea levels. Low-land countries and cities (e.g: Venice) are likely to become frequently flooded. This means the habitat changes and organisms whose niche is not specific to the new conditions are likely to either move away from these environments or die Ã¢â¬â this is most likely to happen to terrestrial animals. This is likely to have a massive consequence on both the ecology and the economy in that location. The loss of species could have wide-spread effects on food chains. Reduced food for some organisms means those lower on the trophic level will die out (the effects of rising sea water will affect smaller organisms the most!). Therefore, the numbers of top predators will also fall. In terms of the economy, many countries are famous for specific dishes or nature reserves. If the beauty of these nature reserves, or the availability of the animals for the specific dishes is affected this could significantly reduce the number of tourists to that country. Rising temperatures could have a more permanent effect on food webs world-wide. Most organisms are adapted to a specific niche and will be unable to adapt to changing environments. Organisms living in extreme environments will be affected most. The loss of their habitat could lead to species extinction. It is a known that if air currents above the sea are above 25oC (or thereabouts) then hurricanes and tornadoes are more likely to occur. These hurricanes and tornadoes could have devastating effects on the economy of many countries. Increasing global temperatures, however, can also affect the ability to grow crops in certain areas. Plants that require cold conditions could die out completely and plants requiring warm (but not hot) conditions will be able to be grown in countries not thought possible! Pathogens such as bacteria and viruses thrive at higher temperatures (they reproduce fastest at high temperatures). As global temperatures rise, the spread of disease is likely to increase. If the disease spreads to crops this is likely to adversely affect yield. Despite all this bad news, photosynthesis and respiratory rates are likely to increase due to increased activity of enzymes. This could result in an increased yield of crop which is a great bonus. These increased rates will be matched by faster diffusion and active transport rates. Thus plants will be able to take up the required nutrients and minerals more quickly, again increasing the yield! A major physiological effect will be on proteins. All proteins have an optimum temperature. As temperatures rise, ectothermic organism who are unable to control their core temperature, are the most likely to be affected first. Rising temperatures could cause Hydrogen bonds to break thus the tertiary structure of these proteins will change. These changes could render the proteins useless as they are no longer specific to their original needs. Thus organisms could have difficult in digestion (enzymes denatured), cell division (controlled by proteins) and hormonal control (hormones are proteins).
Friday, November 8, 2019
FMC Green River Essay Essays FMC Green River Essay Essay FMC Green River Essay Essay FMC Green River. one of the workss of FMC Corporation soon experiences quandary sing the efficiency and effectivity of the full works with regard to other workss of FMC Corporation specifically FMC Aberdeen. Despite of the many twelvemonth of FMC Green River in operation. it has been overtaken by a much younger company-FMC Aberdeen in footings of profitableness and operating cost decrease rate. FMC Green River and FMC Aberdeen have different direction orientations and works operations. But despite of these differences. FMC Green River still faces the job of holding inefficient works operations relative to FMC Aberdeen. In this respect. Ken Daily. FMC Green River director. decided to analyze the possibility of utilizing some of the direction principles that FMC Aberdeen has been utilizing for the past old ages of its operations. Organizational and Behavioral Analysis After a critical analysis of the instance. Bob Lancaster and his Ã¢â¬Å"unorthodoxÃ¢â¬ manner of pull offing people would be the primary ground why FMC Aberdeen has been sing high productiveness and efficiency since its constitution. : The extended enlisting procedure of FMC Aberdeen secured the said works with dedicated yet skilled workers and has passion over taking enterprises in doing the full works more productive. On the other manus. FMC Green River has a really opposite orientation than of FMC Aberdeen. There is no sense of group attempt and teamwork on the floors of FMC Green River plus holding more workers on a occupation country even if a few Numberss of workers can complete the same occupation at the same quality degree. Furthermore. rewards of FMC Green River is comparatively higher comparative to other FMC CorporationÃ¢â¬â¢s workss all over the United States. Uniting this fact with the information that occupation countries in FMC Green River can be performed by less figure of people seems to be the ground behind they are executing inefficiently. They said works pays workers that are truly non lending to the full company. Worker-management and worker-worker relationship is besides of low degree since working Stationss of every worker are located far from one another thereby doing a less interaction between every employee. Ken Daily. though he encourages interaction between the direction and the employees. still. given the fact that the working Stationss of every worker are located far from one another would merely do his direction manner of being synergistic and unfastened fail. It has been identified that the construction of the workss of FMC Green River is already old and must be renovated and structured in such a manner that every workers can interact with each in order for the direction manner of Daily and FMC Aberdeen to work in FMC Green River. The slack enlisting procedure of FMC Green River besides contributed for the low productiveness of their production floors since non all of the workers of FMC Green River are skilled plenty to presume duties in the said works. Alternatives One of the possible options that Daily must implement would be to restitute the construction of FMC Green RiverÃ¢â¬â¢s workss in such a manner that the workers will hold adequate opportunities of interacting with one another thereby making an avenue towards the development of sense of teamwork and group attempt to achieve higher quality end product for the company ( Binkley. 2007 ) . Another possible option that FMC Green River could implement would be to reexamine the public presentations of every employee and supply countenances to those that have negative public presentations. Even though these employees are being protected by the labour brotherhood. still. with the footing of non conforming to the criterions of FMC Green River. the direction can compensate away fire those employees with low public presentation and productiveness. On the other manus. FMC Green River direction must supply inducements to those employees that able to excel the outlooks of the direction. This will actuate every employees of the said works to execute fruitfully. FMC Green River must supply a new set of agendas for the full work force of the works in such a manner that there will be no worker that will be laid away and merely the optimum figure of workers will merely describe on a specific twenty-four hours depending on the urgency of the production line. Daily must make out to his workers and employees to forming company excursions. field daies per section in order to set up a good working relation with the workers and at the same clip gaining their trust ( Weber. 2007 ) . A director that approaches an ordinary worker will be appreciated by the latter and will hike the morale of every employees of the works. The last but non the least alternate would be the proviso of preparations and seminars for FMC Green RiverÃ¢â¬â¢s workers that would heighten non merely their accomplishments but besides their mentality on executing their duties in the company. With this. Ken Daily will be able to increase the productiveness every bit good as the flexibleness of his workers in executing their duties to the company. Recommendation Among the above identified options above. the most effectual option would be the restructuring of FMC Green RiverÃ¢â¬â¢s workss in such a manner that every workers will hold a opportunity to interact with each other making adequate room for the development of teamwork and cooperation on every workers of FMC Green River. This will increase the productiveness of the workers and at the same clip the productiveness of the workss. If this will go successful. it would be now easy for Daily to near his workers and do bond every bit good as to gain their trust and this solution will besides hike the morale of every workers of FMC Green River ( Levit. 2002 ) . Execution and Contingency Plan The redevelopment of assorted workss will take one at a clip in order non to impact the operation of the full company. After this. Daily is expected to establish some activities. as a Ã¢â¬Å"mood starterÃ¢â¬ . of the interactions of every worker on their new working Stationss after the redevelopment procedure. A few months after this. Daily can now establish activities that would heighten the interaction of employees from assorted sections and so from assorted works to widen the scope of interaction in FMC Green River. If this solution will non work. so the restructuring of workers schedule in such a manner that all of the workers will still stay in the company yet the optimum figure of workers are the 1s that will describe on a given twenty-four hours in order to minimise their operational cost and increase the productiveness of the full company.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Sexual Assult essays In this essay we will prove that sexual harrasment aginst women must end. when unwanted contact is not wanted . It is a nuisance and violates a persons rights as a human .The main ideas that will be discussed in the following are: bad role models, lack of punishment . society must solve these problems by, srticter laws, and more punishment. The first thing we will look at will be crime without punishment. There are more than 10%(500,000) canadian women are batterd by their spouces. Spousal assult rarely leads to convitions or punishment of any kind, because of that men are still beating there wives. The victems tolerate horrible abuse because of fear that more abuse will come, eco. and social devistation. Some of the causes of spousal abuse are, the abuser needs a way to vent there anger, so they take it out on there spouces. Society blames women for the abuse that they recive. some other reasons for spousal abuse are social valuse, traditons, laws, attitudes these condones the beatings. the reason that they dont do much about these things are, it costs money to educate public about the dangers of abuse. The next thing we will look at is sex crimes And the last but not least thing we will look at will be Date Rape. Most date rapes happen at parties with losts of people. acquantance rape is more "brutal than terrifying" , it destroys trust. Date Rape usually resu ...
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Coursework Assignment BEHAVIOURAL FINANCE VIEW ON MARKET BUBBLES - Essay Example During the period of tulip mania it has been observed that the cost of a single tulip had surpassed the average income of an expert employee. The period of tulip mania was considered to be a golden age in the Dutch calendar where the prices of the tulip bulbs reached to an unexpected extent (Thompson, 2006). Literature Review and Explanation of Tulip Mania (of the 17th century) At present time, Dutch flower industry comprise about 70% of global flower production and about 90% of global flower trade. From the past time, Dutch flowers were traded to Europe, where the bulbs of flowers were sold with significant amount of prices. Among all the flowers, Tulip flower is significantly interrelated with the life of Dutch people. Dutch people were quite ecstatic about the tulip flowers. From the historical evidence, it can be observed that Dutch people consider tulips as a symbol of fortune in their life. Throughout the period of 1636 it has been observed that the costs of tulip bulbs became extensively which initiated the event, tulip mania (Goldgar, 2007). Historical Explanation of Tulip Mania (of the 17th century) Tulip was first originated in the year 1593, by a botanist named, Carolus Clusius, who carried tulip plant from Constantinople to Holland. He embedded a small garden to investigate the plant for medicinal purposes. Due to certain perceptions about tulip, the flower soon became a fashion icon among affluent people of Holland. As a result, its demand as well as prices started to increase. Momentarily usual tulip bulbs began selling at higher rate in the flower market (Wood, 2012). Key Elements or Structure of Tulip Mania (of the 17th century) With increasing demand of tulips, different marketers started to make investments on planting tulips which provided less risks and high profits. From historical evidences, it can be observed that in the initial period, tulip plantation yielded better profits, but after some years there was sudden fall in the growth of th e business. Nevertheless, new guidelines were applied for tulip production, but the firms and the industry faced losses due to rises in the prices of buds (Thompson, 2006). Behavioural Finance Phenomena of Tulip Mania (of the 17th century) The behavioural finance phenomena related to tulip mania of 17th Century provided insight about both prosperous and collision of the market of tulip bulbs. The tulip mania had led to extending negative consequences in the Dutch economy. The effects of tulip mania were so brutal in the sense that it led to liquidation of the economy. In the context of tulip mania of 17th century, it can be argued that in the initial period, the prices of the tulip bulbs were not quite high. However, when the tulip buds were carried in Europe, investors from different foreign markets collected those buds and spread in the market. Nevertheless, as time passed there was certain decrease in the demand of tulip bulbs for farmers because of certain risks in the cultivati on. Hence, the production of tulip
Friday, November 1, 2019
Has there been a change in women's rights in the last 10 years in Iran and Afghanistan Why or why not - Essay Example Women were even not allowed to attain social forums or talk shows throughout the 20th century. Women employment was not accepted legally and voting rights were also not given to the women of Afghanistan. The trend was also common in other countries of the Middle East, such as Iran. The Iranian women were exempted from social rights like education, marriage, divorce, sports and health rights. The Iranian women were also not given reproduction rights or abortion rights. According to the Iranian law, birth rights and family planning were decided by the males of the society. From the 19th century and throughout the 20th century, Afghan rulers made several attempts to reduce the restrictions imposed on women. Most of the attempts towards the change of women rights were unsuccessful but some of the changes were incorporated successfully, related to health and education. Similarly, the Iranian women played significant role during the Persian Constitutional Revolution for betterment of their social positions and their fight for betterment of women in the society still continues. In the 21st century it has been observed that women of Afghanistan and Iran are allowed to attain education by going to schools and colleges and they are also allowed to get employment. In the later part of 20th century, it has also been observed that Persian women are allowed to take part in journalism courses, which is a positive significance towards the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s development. This assignment highlights the important changes in women rights that occurred between 2003 and 2014 along with the reasons behind the transformations that happened. The assignment is based on observations collected from important articles. It also contains information provided by theorists and researchers towards the idea of women empowerment and their rights. The analysis is done based on observations collected from historical progresses to the current situations. It is clear that the women rights in