Thursday, February 28, 2019

Ethical Issues In The ICU Essay

Medical practitioners argon confront with the ch anyenge of making decisions on whether to keep or cast a longanimouss action sustaining therapy in the intensifier aid unit. Intensive get by units argon departments which provide graduate(prenominal) pure tone and advanced miscellanys of therapies to very sick-abed unhurrieds in the intense business concern unit at an increased cost. These tolerants expectations argon high with regard to innovational medical specialty, and as a result, drive led to the rise of complex respect adapted issues in the ICU.Clinicians managing patients in the intensive c atomic number 18 unit face rough(prenominal) ethical problems during the patients routine assist. This is seen in cases of withholding life story story sustaining therapy, withdrawing life sustaining therapy, informed consent and making decisions that affect the patients. Introduction honest related issues in the intensive cargon unit are a plight facing medical practitioners and nurses. This has affected the quality of accusation assumption to the patients in the ICU.Nurses responsible for caring for critic twoy green patients are confront with many ethical problems in the ICU due to the lack of prof exercise full condemnation critical sympathize with personnel and lack of replete funds to facilitate and run the intensive care units. A guidepost on ethical issues in the intensive care unit demands that nurses whirl critical care to patients apply the care with humanity by show respect for the emotions and choices of the patients and their families.Nurses in this field are required to provide all necessary information to the patients and the family, counsel them and assist in interpreting the results so they can make well informed decisions. Nurses must consult with all physicians obscure in the patients management. ethical problems facing nurses in he intensive care unit range from self-asserting forms of treatment, following the wishes of the patients families to using extreme point forms of reducing annoyance and aided self-annihilation and euthanasia..Care of patients in the intensive care units involves aggressive forms of treatments with high risks associated with them and high-tech modern medicine which has high risks than improving the patients view. Critically ill patients and terminally ill patients who should be left wing to crumble in the comfort of their homes like in the earlier eld are now made to undergo last minute aggressive treatments which whitethorn end up being no significant. In such cases when the treatment fails and the patient dies, the patients family blames the nurses and doctors for being insensitive to their wishes.Nurses are faced with the consequence of non knowing where to draw the line between ex die harding the natural service of dying by applying aggressive forms of medical care and when to apply life fight back systems. Ethics require that medical practit ioners and nurses put the interests of their patients and their families first or else than applying futile medical technology to save the life of the patient or prolong their dying process against the familys wishes. Nurses in the care of critically ill patients are required to set proper goals and interventions for terminal are of patients.End of life decisions should be made after consensus with all involved physicians. Critically ill patients in the intensive care unit deal the most complex forms of treatment even in cases where their prognosis is poor. These patients overly die under the most undesirable statuss such as comatose conditions or under ventilatory support. Research studies have sh sustain that critically ill patients are put through very aggressive forms of treatment which the clinicians would not want to undergo.The same studies have shown that the majority of patients in the intensive care unit are on a life- qualifying care. Only very some patients in the i ntensive care unit receive full life support treatment and CPR. Most nurses and medical care givers are faced with the burden of choosing whether to resuscitate a patient or not when their prognosis is poor. Categories of ethical problems Cost decrement Critical care of patients in the intensive care unit is the most expensive form of treatment. Critical patients who die are said to accumulate more expenses than those who survive.This is because aggressive modern medicine for sustaining life is very expensive. Due to this the standard of care give in intensive care units has deteriorated as it focuses more on cost reduction quite a than provision of quality health care. Medical care providers are lots faced with the burden of how to establish when to provide full life support to patients and when to withdraw life sustaining support. These decisions are usually found on the patients age, type of illness or their prognosis.In transaction the medical care providers are influenced to make biased decisions. Defining the standards of care to be assumption in the intensive care units is based on reducing the incurred costs. (Lo B. (2005). Quality of care Most health care institutions have developed strategies of limiting life support on critically ill patients. Families of critical patients may wish to write do not animate orders if their patients rate of survival is low. In case this is done, this kin of patients receives less attention from medical personnel and less care from nurses.Strategies of limiting life support have been based on the patients age, prognosis and the family wishes. Patients who are categorized as old and with a poor prognosis tend to get less attention from the medical care providers and the care granted to them is of less quality. Rather that receiving actual medical care these patients are given sedatives and narcotic analgesia. Terminally ill patients receive fewer medical interventions before death and are usually given narcoti c analgesics to mitigate pain and sedatives to reduce their suffering.Ethical guidelines urge that all patients be given quality care irrespective of their condition tho medical care providers often base their interventions on biased decisions. The concept of futility Medical care providers use the concept of futile therapy to withhold or withdraw life sustaining treatment. In the clinical practice very few things are of absolute foregone conclusion and so physicians must avoid making decisions based on the futility of the treatment. The core of CPR application cannot be based on whether the patients family signed the Do not Resuscitate order.Every other patient in the intensive care unit should be given quality care based on facts rather than assumptions. Decisions on withholding or withdrawing life support should be discussed with the patients or with their family members. This expresses respect for their rights and wishes and helps in avoiding conflicts which may forget to wa keless litigations. The medical personnel are faced with a dilemma in cases where the patients prognosis is poor and extending the natural process of dying through aggressive treatment would be futile.In such cases some family members could insist on sustaining the patients life. The medical personnel thus have no option in deciding what is beat out for the patient. Putting such a patient through aggressive treatment enables the family to understand the realities of the concept on withholding or withdrawing the life support. Autonomy This principle demands that no form of treatment should be administered to patients without their own approval or that of their family members, except in cases of emergency where immediate intervention is required.Patients and their families have the right to disapprove any form of treatment and their wishes should be respected. These wishes should be indicated on a pen consent in form of advance directive. However, when writing the directive the pati ent may not have anticipated his present condition or he may decide to change his mind. Medical personnel are thus faced with burden of making the best decision for the patient by putting the patients interests first. In the intensive care unit, medical personnel deciding whether to apply CPR on a patient with a good prognosis or to follow his family wishes to withdraw life support.The reliability of family members to represent the best interests of the patients is questionable because some family members may want to withdraw the patients life support for their own selfish interests. As a result, doctors and nurses are required to make the best decision for the patient irrespective of the familys wishes. (Pozgar G. D (2005). Euthanasia and assisted suicide Euthanasia is whereby a medical care provider administers a lethal dose to the patient while in assisted suicide the killing drug is self administered by the patient with the help of a physician.This practice is no widespread, alt hough physicians all over the world are move in the practice. They justify their actions as a form of relieving their patients from pain and suffering. In some cases patients do not give consent for euthanasia but still physicians practice it. Most family members choose terminal sedation whereby patients are put in a comatose condition and then diet and water is withdrawn. (Morton P. G (2005) Organ donation Patients in the intensive care unit requiring critical care may require an organ remove to assist in sustaining their life.Patients and family members might have advance directives which disapprove the vagary of organ transplants. Medical care givers have a difficult time determining whether a patient should receive an organ donation or not. Performing an organ transplant without the patients or familys consent could lead to a legal litigation. (Melia K. M (2004). The principle of beneficence In this situation the medical care provider is faced with a moral dilemma in making the best decision fro the patient with regard to his interests rather than those of the family.The role of a physician to apply his best judgement for the patients interest is stoped by the patients family which rejects the concept of futility. Such family members impose stupid demands on the physician to extend the natural process of dying. This only prolongs the patients pain and suffering. Medical personnel should therefore be able to make the best decisions for the patients.Ethical issues in the nursing field hinder the ability of physicians to administer quality medical care to critical patients in the intensive care unit.Physicians are urged to shoe humanity and compassion when applying intensive care to critical patients. Nurses and doctors should set goals and objectives when giving end of life care to patients with both good and poor prognosis. In regard to ethical issues in the intensive care unit, medical care givers should know that their duties are both directed towar ds the patients and the families. Before carrying out any medical treatment and procedure, nurses and doctors should get hold written consents form patients or their immediate family members to avoid ethical dilemmas which may lead to legal litigations.

The Development Of Foreign Direct Investment Economics Essay

One of the close to important consequences of globalisation in the universe sparingal body is the outgrowth of un identical direct investment among adduces. Foreign direct commit manoeuvre rule plays a critical take to the woods in the ontogenesis of frugal, socio-cultural alterations and learning in defers around the universe. International trade and impertinent direct spend be comparative constructs fundamentally which enables the free motion of labour and great across the universe or amidst states without much monitory minutess. This proposes for an indirect association among international trade and exchange production factors between two or more states. The greater advantages of international trade and irrelevant direct investiture is cost advantage in footings of production and take facilitation, which means the a state bring forthing a peculiar wide and handiness of natural stuffs are relatively less so in such state of affairs they would take advant ages of otherwise states resorts and factors of production run short frugalal ( Euro Journals, 2012 )FDI plays a critical function in ripening of frugal system because they tend to be more productive than the investing of topical anaesthetic houses. It caused to convey alterations in the production method and it has led to important confirmative spread out effects on the labour productiveness of domestic help houses. Socio-economic and political factors are matters a batch in the influx of foreign direct investing in a state, because the investing has some prefatory things to be satisfy like the stableness in policy, steady authorities, effective facets as such. So to pull foreign direct investing influx with broad constabularies Hs hence becomes a cardinal combat zone in the emerging markets. The foreign direct investing itself create a wider area for attract other investors to put and to be invest. The vision of new growing chances and bulky net incomes promote big inve sting flow across a scope of industry and chance types. When the foreign direct investing take topographic station a concern which has already populate in the market of state, the per centum of competition would increase quickly merely to come through in the market. And this led has led to competition among states in explicating flexible policies that and proviso encouragement to private investors to put more. Basically t a state would accept the policies and processs based on the resorts ( Borensztein, E, 1998 )In 21st century Brazil, Russia, India and mainland China lead obtained important function in the universe economic system as manufacturer of goods and services and the approaching universe super mightinesss. outright a twenty-four hours s universe looking into BRIC states due to the extravagantly potency clients and big community fundamentally it pull immense pairing of capital. By 2050 BRIC states bequeath go prevailing economic system in the universe because it has high economic potency. BRIC nations found a greater post in emerging markets and these states have the fastest turning economic systems. The BRIC states are listed as emerging economic systems but these states as a entire bash non herstwhile(a) any trade or incorporate economic brotherhood. Now a twenty-four hours s a good per centums of foreign direct investing bend to Brazil, Russia, India and China, chiefly Goldman Sachs investing bank to indorse for BRIC states as an Economic Block. Global competition for FDI had given the bargaining power to Multi- National Corporation and their Alliess ( Boros Torstila, 1990 ) . Due to the influx of foreign direct investing states started to liberalise their policies fundamentally on decrease in entry gross enhancements, ordinances, environmental clearances and demand on working conditions for pulling FDIs. Gold adult male Sachs the representative of BRIC states predicted that China and India are likely to emerge as dominant planetary providers of manufactured goods and services while Brazil and Russia to dominant in supply of Raw stuffs ( Journal of Business Science, 2010 ) .The importance of maturation state is increasing twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours. Africa and Latin American states are the chief competition for BRIC states. The potency of Africa particularly sec Africa, the largest economic system in the part is besides plays a critical function in Global economic growing and victimisation and it is challenge for BRIC state s development. If the right policy take topographic point South Africa, they would obtain five per centum of growing in following decennary, study set up in the survey of Goldman Sachs. Now the projected figure depicts that South Africa achieved the corresponding growing as BRIC states have obtained. The important function of FDI in the development of economic system and living experience of BRIC economic systems paid attendings of eternal sleep of the universe. Therefore the universe market and investings are looking into it. On other manus this sort of FDI investing caused to make an unofficial relation between such and such states. The of import potency of this states are in human being resources and attainable clients, who can afford the slandered of life. The chief and for most of import give behind the growing of BRIC states is the salvaging outlook of people, when the save resources for future it leads to maintain a good modesty for state. Once the militias has got excess which means the state has possible to put and high capital ratio. In the recent yearss BRIC states exhibited economical specialism in the face of the US recognition convulsion and growing diminution. BRIC states place a cyclical constituent of strong domestic demand growing. The economic growing of a state is reference with the consequence of several factors like alterations in labour and capital inputs, entire factor productiveness as such. The entire productiveness ca ptures technological advancement and efficiency additions and residuary rest unexplained due to alterations in labour and capital inputs. However the BRIC states are differ in footings of their growing chances ( Vijayakumar, Sridharan, Rao, 2010 )The important factors which favorable for Brazil, Russia, India and China is the demographic tendencies, labour supply kineticss and urbanization ratios. Basically BRIC states are good sounded in population. The constructs such urbanisation, industrialisation, mercerization and Internationals helps China from a poorness afflicted state to largest economic system in the universe. A low urbanisation ratio of 40 per cent in China may assist to antagonize the protrude diminution in the on the job age of the urbanisation by leting the transportation of labour from the countryside into the more productive urban economic system. only the instance of Brazil is such different from the remainder of squad because urbanisations have already done in Brazil in a greater scope. It is good structured developed state in the universe. The figures are demoing that 20 per cent addition in population of working age between the twelvemonth 2005 and 2025. Due to the influence of urbanisation Russia gets small aid will come from excess rural labour. From the South Asiatic demographic point of position, India confronting most promising economic place with solid growing of population and lower grade of urbanisation. Initial phase India was confronting the rivals of urban development and substructure. just the recent tendency of capital accretion favour to China and India. presume the investing ratio does non alter dramatically over the following old ages, China and India face much brighter chance than Brazil, Russia. Currency domestic investing ratios are around 40 per cent and 30 per cent of gross domestic product in China and India severally, were as an investing ratio of Brazil, Russia history to 20 per cent of GDP.European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences, 2012, Foreign admit enthronization in BRIC Countries A Panel Data Analysis of the Trends and Determinations of FDI, online , Accessed on January 2013 hypertext transfer protocol //www.eurojournals.com/EJEFAS.htmBorensztein, E, 1998, Hoe does foreign investing affect growing? Journal of International Economics, Volume 45Boros Torstila, J, 1999, The Determinants of foreign Direct Investment operation of Finnish MNCs in passage economic systems, Helsinki ETLA, The seek Institute of Finnish Economy.Journal of Business Science and Applied Management, 2010, Determinants of FDI in BRICs Countries A panel analysis, Volume 5, Issue 3, online , Accessed onNararyanamurthy Vijayakumar, Perumal Sridharan, Kode CHangra Sekhrar Rao, 2010, Determinants of FDI in BRIC Countries A panel analysis, Online , Accessed on February 2013. hypertext transfer protocol //www.business-and-management.org/download.php? file=2010/5_3 1 13-Vijayakumar, Sri dharan, Rao.pdf

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Gandhi, King and Mandela: What Made Non-Violence Work?

All through history governments and empires have been overthrown or defeated primarily by the violence of those who oppose them. This violence was unremarkably successful however, there have been several situations, when violence failed, that protesters have had to farm to other methods. Non-violent protesting never confabmed to be the right course of action until the ideology of Mohandas Gandhi spread and influenced successful protests across the world. Non-violent methods were successfully used, most nonably, by Mohandas Gandhi, Martin Luther mightiness, jr., and Nelson Mandela.Mohandas Gandhis methods not only led to Indias independence from Britain but as well had victories over racial discrimination in south Africa. Gandhi saw, upon his return to India from South Africa, that Britain had run Indias people into poverty and subordination. Indians were not allowed to manufacture or own their own salt. This affected the poor population most because of how a good deal they used salt. Gandhi began by writing to the English Governor in India describing his intention to convert the British people through passive resistance and to make them see the wrong they have done to India (Document 1).He felt that the British overtop was a curse. Even though Gandhi spent a nitty-gritty of 2.338 days in prison, he did not feel the slightest hesitation in entering the prisoners box (Doc. 7). People followed Gandhi in his protests and umteen followed him into jail feeling firm in their resolution of passing their monetary value in jail in perfect happiness and peace (Doc. 7). piece of music he was in jail, Mme. Naidu, an Indian poetess, filled in his position in leading protests. She encouraged the protesters by reiterating that they must not use whatsoever violence they would be beaten but they must not dissentnot even raise a hand to ward saturnine blows (Doc. 4). The author felt that the western mind finds it difficult to grasp the image of nonresistance, but this was not the case.Just 25 years later Martin Luther ability, Jr. found his own kind of victory using Gandhis techniques. King began his career of peaceful protests as a follower, not a leader. In 1960, he toke part in the lunch counter sit-ins in auberge to bring the whole issue of racial injustice under the scrutiny of the conscience of Atlanta (Doc 2). King hoped to help not just the ignominious population but the white population as well. By 1963, King had been chosen as head of the Southern Christian Leadership meeting which sought to aid in the efforts to put an end to segregation. He reli able-bodied volunteers to serve in their non-violent army knowing that they would have to accept and subscribe violence without retaliating (Doc. 5).Their will to fight was from the conviction that they were right. Kings followers were so empowered that, for their participation in the Montgomery raft boycott, people had rushed down to get arrested they were now proud to be arr ested for the cause of liberty (Doc. 8). King got white and blacks to work together for the defect on Washington for Jobs and Freedom (Doc. 11). He wanted them to b able to sit down together at a table of sexual union.Nelson Mandela used the same Gandhian principles of nonviolencethat seeks to conquer through regeneration (Doc. 3). He lived under the strict laws of apartheid that separated the white Dutchmen from the native African population. In similar circumstances as M.L. King, Mandela supported the same acts of nonviolence in order to gain rights for South Africans. He knew that attempts at violencewould be devastatingly crushed under the power of the state. At his protests in Johannesburg in 1952, he knew that the authorities would seek to intimidate, imprison, and perhaps attack them (Doc. 6) however, like Gandhi, he encouraged the volunteers not to retaliate.Mandela spent 26 years and 8 months in jail as punishment for his protesting however, he felt that no resign was too great in the struggle for freedom (Doc. 9). He spent time in jail with other protesters that all felt that whatsoever sentences they received, even the death sentence their deaths would not be in egotistical (Doc. 9). Freedom for the South African people from apartheid finally came in 1993. To Mandela this was not just the freedom of his people but the freedom of all people, black and white (Doc. 12). South Africas New Democracy rose afterwards years of continuous nonviolence from the populace.Gandhi, King, and Mandela each fought for their causes with a method that was in truth rarely used but even less rarely successful. Their efforts at peaceful protest without retaliation to attacks were successful in overthrowing trans-continental rule and shutdown segregation of races. Gandhi transformed the idea of non-violence into a way to fight for freedom and justice which would ultimately end in success and peace.

Language of the Neanderthal Essay

It is understood that the hoggish was an exceptional thinker and communicator precisely there atomic number 18 heavy debates that question whether or not it spoke with a language. Some argue that the hyoid bone of the neandertal was too lofty in relation to its larynx to en suitable its tongue to form words, plot of ground others argue the opposite. With respect to both theories, it was indeed a linguistic hominid. The hoggish skull is much interchangeable in shape to the gentlemans gentleman sapien than that of hominids before it which would quarter it reasonable to believe that it was able to speak using language. Since it was the transitional species however, it whitethorn defecate been limited in its development of language usage.History of the neanderthalBefore analyzing the arguments discussing the language used by the piggys, it is important to understand what is cognise about them. gentleman neanderthalensis is the last species in the evolution of hominids , which is not considered a sophisticated human. After galore(postnominal) years of study, and dozens of findings, scientists observed the differences in the shape of Neanderthal skulls compargond to human being sapiens. They disc wholly overed that the brain was smaller, the study were a lot more robust, and that the Neanderthal had no chin. The first findings of Neanderthals were in Belgium, Germany, and Gibraltar, in the former(a) to mid 1800s. Some of the almost important findings of the Neanderthal were in the La Chapelle- aux- Saints caves of Southern France. The ideas that have come from these rolling hills have both yearn and helped the progress for well-grounded information in Neanderthal studies.In 1908, jean and Amde Bouyssonies findings light-emitting diode many scientists to desist that Neanderthals lived strictly in caves. This is now proven to be false. These rumors however, created widespread induction that do Neanderthals appear vastly inferior to in advance(p) humans. One such generalization held sway and brought about artistic depictions of the Neanderthals being sluggish and bungling creatures. These depictions were created in reflection of the reconstruction of the OId Man of La Chapelle- Aux- Saints by cut paleontologist, Marcellin boule. The grind away in the reconstruction of this particular Neanderthal were arthritic and although Boule was aware of the deforming illnesshis reconstruction apparently did not take it into sexual conquest sufficiently (Sommer 2006213). It wasnt until the mid- 1900s that paleoanthropologists sight that the Neanderthal walked upright and wasnt slouched over at all.Discussions on the Neanderthal Hyoid BoneDespite all of the progress that has been made in figuring out just who Homo neanderthalensis was, anthropologists fluid have a long way to go. There are many sub-topics about the enigmatic skeletal remains of the Neanderthal that are stirring up heated debates in the world of anthropol ogy, and are windlessness left to skepticism. One of the most moot is whether it was able to speak with fictile tongue movements that were able to create sophisticated variances in sound that besides allowed it to live with social interactions that rivaled the ones we use today. The hyoid bone and larynx range of the Neanderthal compared to Homo sapiens is the most explored aspect of this debate of language.In these arguments, the morphology of the organs and bones in the neck are a lot times more of a concern than their functionality. The hyoid is a U shaped bone, responsible for harnessing the movements of the tongue. It is located just above the larynx, which is also know as the voice box. The larynx and hyoid bone are positioned in a way that work in concert to form the words perceive among modern day humans. In the early 1970s, scientists E.S. Crelin and Philip Lieberman reassembled the larynx of the Neanderthal and came up with a strong theory that is still agreed with today.They build that the Neanderthal larynx is positioned high, close to the base of the skull, and the tongue lies almost entirely at heart the oral cavity (Lieberman 1975494). Lieberman is an expert in the evolution of language and has worn-out(a) a greater part of his career discussing the major differences between Neanderthal and modern human language. He has written volumes that greatly detail the morphology of the Neanderthals mandible and laryngeal bone structure and has for the most part concluded that Neanderthal language was nowhere near that of modern day humans. Shortly afterLieberman and Crelins theorise Neanderthal skull, there was not yet an actual Neanderthal hyoid bone found and other scientists and thinkers in the 1970s disagreed with the way the Neanderthal skull was reconstructed. They based this off of the position that Crelin was using provided five specimens of Neanderthals from the La Chapelle Aux Saints site and also that the culminated skull was rec onstructed incorrectly.Many paleontologists believed that the way it was put together would have made it unworkable for it to swallow food. One cannot help wondering why the candid nerve tract remodeling concentrates so heavily on La Chapelle when La Ferrassie I is in a much better state of physical preservation (Carlisle and Siegel 1978 370).Despite the valid statements made by Carlisle and Siegel that account the pristine condition of the skull that was put together at the La Ferrassie I site it still did not control any more evidence that pointed to advanced vocal communication among the Neanderthals. round the late 1980s the first Neanderthal hyoid bone was found in the Kebara Caves of Mount Carmel, Israel. It was discovered in the middle Paleolithic layers of fault that date back to sixty thousand years ago.Upon investigation of the bone, it was discovered that it was nearly identical to those of modern humans. It is important to point out that many of noted paleontologis t, Philip Liebermans studies were based on comparing the hyoid bones of Chimpanzees to Neanderthals. Lieberman and his colleagues reached a consensus that Neanderthals spoke more like Chimpanzees than modern humans. Chimpanzees have been reportedly able to communicate with very subtle changes in tonality, which indicates there is a primitive language there. That being said, the shape of the hyoid bone of the chimpanzee is worlds apart from the Homo sapien.Whereas, previously mentioned the hyoid was nearly identical to the Homo sapiens. The chimpanzees hyoid bone is much smaller and narrower in comparison to its larynx which is partly what makes its language usage, extremely limited. not only that, but its brain is much smaller than not only the modern human, but also the Neanderthal. Liebermans vast knowledge of linguistics has made him an important figure in Archaeology, but his morphological ideals that are commonplace have left out some of the more manifest similarities between Neanderthals and humanss.Neanderthal deoxyribonucleic acidThe functions of the DNA structure of the Neanderthal are often times abandoned entirely in the arguments defending their wish of language. Proteins extracted from digs surrounding Neanderthal sites have been analyzed in labs and their DNA structures have given researchers positive reinforcement that the Neanderthal was very similar in its genetic makeup. According to Dr. Julien Riel- Salvatore from the University of Colorado at Denver, Genetically, they Neanderthals share with modern humans a distinctive mutation of the FOXP2 gene, which seems to be intimately associated with actors line (Julien Riel-Salvatore, personal communication 2011). This same mutation is not exhibited in the Chimpanzee.Neanderthals and Human BreedingThere are other debates that coincide with Neanderthals being able to speak, for instance a study that shows Neanderthals may have been able to manifold with humans. This is a paradox in that it wo uld rule out the term Neanderthal entirely, because in order to breed, an animal must be of the same species. If this is align not only would it point out that Homo neanderthalensis could speak as eloquently as the Homo sapien, but the Homo neanderthalensis was a Homo Sapien. The differences would be more in the light of behavior, nomadic skills, and tool technology that made the Homo Sapien with a chin able to out-survive the other. Playful notions aside, this is still a very debatable sub-topic of Neanderthal language and many more discoveries will have to be made to prove its total validity. delusory TheoriesOther noted archaeologists believe that the large nose of the Neanderthal made it incapable of speech, insisting Contrasts in facial morphology probably led to nasal-like vocalizationsand foradvanced hmmmmm sounds (Mithen 2006 226). The brief description that Mithen uses to back up this opinion does not prove anything about how the nose may have certainly caused vocal limit ations. Its nose was larger in size, but so were other split of the Neanderthal, and they were no impedance to how it got around.ConclusionCorrosion of bones and more significantly muscle tissue make many aspects of anthropology a challenging field. It is not always clear how the muscletissue that once surrounded the skeletons of our antediluvian relatives operated in relation to nerves, connective tissue, and bones. The Neanderthal is a confusing hominid because of its somewhat smaller cranial capacity, and extremely large skeletal frame. The shapes of its bones are like larger replicas of ours, aside from the skull which is unique in its supercilium ridge and lack of chin. The conclusions of inter-breeding seem a bit far-fetched. It may have been able to speak as well as modern humans, but perhaps in comparison to the Darwin Finches, its slight variances in structure may have selected it to extinction.AcknowledgementsI would like to thank Dr. Riel- Salvatore for his feedback on the Neanderthal. I am not a professional analyst in anthropology, and am gratifying that he was able to provide me with some of his personal inquiries on the controversial debates centered on Neanderthal language.Works CitedBoellstorf, Tom (Editor)1978 Additional Comments on Problems in the Interpretation of Neanderthal Speech Capabilities Vol 80 American Anthropology Association, Virginia. Lynch, Michael (Editor)2006 reverberate Mirror on the Wall Neanderthal as Image and strain in Early 20th- Century French Science and Press Vol. 36. sharp Publications, California. Mithen, Steven2006 The Singing Neanderthal. Harvard University Press, Massachusetts. Riel- Salvatore, Julien (Interview)2011 Original notes from email.Ruff, Christopher (Editor)1996 Structural Harmony and Neanderthal Speech A Reply to Le May Vol. 45 Wiley-Liss, New Jersey.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

College and Herb Block Foundation

Of either your courses, activities, internships, and work vex, which one did you ? nd most rewarding or in person satisfying? Explain why. The most rewarding work experience that I nurture had was to work as a volunteer for the International chest at Northern Virginia Community College. Personally, I considered volunteering responsible work because it requires magazine effort and commitment. Working as a volunteer with the International power was meaningful to me because I was able to instigate so many students in achieving their dream of obtaining an American college education.I was able to military service the International Students and to give them a better understanding of the resources that NOVA offers to international students. Furthermore, my responsibility was to arrange student get-togethers and in so doing build a sense of connection and cohesion. My purpose for volunteering was to assist international students, many of whom are away from home with real smaller sup port at a very young age, with making a smooth transition in to a new coulter. This is particularly all-important(prenominal) to me because I am a dual citizen of America and Pakistan and understand the worry of assimilating into a new culture.FUTURE GOALS Based on your current achievements and interests, guide the kind of work that you plan to be doing in 10 years, twain in your career and in your community. My goal is to get my Masters in Information body and Operation Management (ISOM). I chose this major because I have strong curiosity to learn about Information System Technology. However, I am also interested in business. I am excited about my major because ISOM, which is a mixture of IT and business, leave behind mastermind me to be successful in the future.Furthermore, in 10 years, I swear to be working with Multi Complex Corporations well established in a successful career, after earning Masters in (ISOM) Information System and available Management. I am very confid ent that in next 10 years, I will be in a position that will to utilize my talents and use my skills to solve important problems facing our world today. I see myself inviting new and exciting challenges in ISOM field. Also, I believe that end-to-end my study I will be able to help my community by providing them information about IT skills and about its advantages which would encourage young heartfelt deal to learn more about it.How has a family member, mentor, or personal experience been in? uential in your life? My personal experience and family land have a strong influence on me and on my education. I am motivated to graduate college because neither of my parents graduated from college. I am whole the second person in my family to attend college and hopping to achieve my goal of obtaining my Associates of erudition in Information Technology and then attending a iv years institution. Moreover, the hard work of my parents has always inspires me.In addition, I am very thankful to them for supporting me in my efforts in of obtaining an education. Form my cultural background perspective, very often girls are not allowed to get an education provided I really appreciate my family for providing me the opportunity to get a good education so I can have a brighter future. In 2012, I graduated with 3. 8 GPA form T. C Willimss high school and last semester at NOVA I dischargeed with a 3. 4 GPA. I am very passionate about my studies.However, my fiscal situation has proven to be an obstacle in my pursuit of academician success. My financial situation does not allow me to focus solely on my academics this is why I am applying for the Herb Block Foundation Scholarships. I hope through this scholarship, I will be able to finish my community college career without finances being a barrier to my success. With the help of the Herb Block Foundation I will forge a brighter future my family my community and myself and ultimately the world at large.

Trade Issues Between Developed and Developing Nations

Trade Problems 1 Trade Issues between highly-developed and Developing Nations Friday, January 22, 2010 Trade Problems 2 There are trade problems that survive for a less developed nation when employment with a more than developed nation. These trade problems can prevent the less developed nations from maximising possible gains from international trade. Some of these problems are temporary and resolved in time, while separates are more stubborn and unable to be resolved.I will discuss the type of issues developing nations come across when trading with developed nations. Developing countries participating in trade lack an organised and strong mvirtuosotary policy. Developing nations have problems forecasting money demand. substitution banks have problems keeping records for managing monetary policy because the banks are not sovereign of the government. Some developing countries adopt policies such as dollarization, which allows for financial constancy and lower inflation.Invent ory problems in developing nations are another issue. In developing countries, inventory may be agricultural products instead of industrial products. Most of the inventory problems have to do with the food security and nutrition of the people. Developing nations have to stabilize food prices and production. They also have to equalizer the domestic and imported supply of agricultural products. In Mexico, pollution has change magnitude since NAFTA was signed into law and trade between the U. S. and Mexico began.Despite its governments initial care to Trade Problems 3 environmental issues associated with economic growth, the government did not maintain through on its intentions to take care of the environment. In 1994, real spend on environmental protectiondeclined 45% (Gallagher, 2004). Further, inspections fell by 45% over the same period (Gallagher, 2004). Ten years later, in 2004, in that respect is nothing to suggest that pollution has decreased. If Mexico does not act on pr otect its environment, further environmental degradation will continue.With Mexicos comparative prefer of an abundance of unskilled labor, most firms will stay near(a) to their production markets and pay the costs of environmental regulation, which are small, compared to relocating their businesses elsewhere (Gallagher, 2004). sagacious implementing regulations and enforcing them will not jeopardize direct foreign investment is one of the most important reasons why Mexico can and should reduce pollution and other environmental degradation within its borders (Gallagher, 2004). Trade Problems 4 ReferencesBigman, D, (1986, February). The Journal of the working(a) Research Society, Research on Inventory Problems in Developing Countries. Retrieved Friday, January 22, 2010 from http//www. jstor. org/pss/2582717 Gallagher, K (2004, September). Free Trade and the Environment Mexico, NAFTA, and Beyond. Retrieved Friday, January 22, 2010 from http//ase. tufts. edu/gdae/Pubs/rp/NAFTAEnviro KGAmerProgSep04. pdf Wikipedia, (2010, January). Monetary Policy, Developing Countries. Retrieved Friday, January 22, 2010 from http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Monetary_policy

Monday, February 25, 2019

An Overview of Four Government Agency Websites Essay

The FNS website is dedicated to providing information regarding the distribution and availability of viands throughout the United States. In recounting to this, the site too agrees data on nutrition, and swell up it is maintained crosswise different regions and population groups. Statistical information on child nutrition, food distribution, as well as food security argon wholly made get-at-able to the public furthermore, statistical data on FNS programs, such as those on school meals and disaster relief, be available as well (FNS, 2010).In addition to such, new(prenominal) parts of the website also tin useful information. For example, accomplished studies and articles on issues in food and nutrition are also maintained in the reference section of the site. Similar to the website of other government agencies, the FNS website also contains instruction of how to apply for grants as well as jobs within the agency. Without doubt, for gaining insights on topics related to food and nutrition, and in the pursuit of stay updated regarding the trends regarding such matters, the FNS website is a suitable option.environmental Protection Agency (EPA) At present, environmental issues are evidently among the most discussed topics throughout the world. The EPA website provides its visitors information regarding several(a) aspects of the environment particularly in the context of the United States. In this sense, not only does the site present statistical information on charge quality according to region, but similar data regarding harmful emissions are also provided interestingly, statistics on toxic releases are also made fond to the general public (EPA, 2010).Also, aside from having news features about the environment, which of course encompasses the upstart oil spill sequent, supplementary information on how to maintain a responsible lifestyle for preserving and enhancing the natural environment are also have in the site. In relation to such, it is apparen t that the EPA website designed in a manner that even younger audiences may benefit from its features.N angiotensin-converting enzymetheless, despite being approachable by a wide range of audiences, it is undeniable that experts and queryers would benefit from the abundance of updated statistical information which may be found on the EPA website. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) The FAA, as its name implies, is mainly concerns with base hit in the field of aviation. In this sense though, the issues covered by the FAA ranges from aircraft golosh to pilot competency.FAAs website offers a myriad of information readily accessible by any visitor. For one, it provides means to locate FAA offices and headquarters throughout divers(a) locations in the United States in addition, a range of general as well as in-depth discussions pertaining to aircraft safety, traffic, policies, and even training are all available (FAA, 2010). Of course, given such a broad range of topics being ass essed by the FAA, it is logical to assume that the types of statistical information correspond to such.In particular, statistical information on accidents, traffic, and consumer related aspects such as sales could be accessed through the FAA website interestingly, statistical information on delays as well as pilot test results have been made available as well (FAA, 2010). Thus, it may be said, that the amount of statistical information on the FAA website, presents it as among the government agencies with the most abundant and detailed statistical information available. chest of Economic Analysis (BEA) Economics, in order to be understood at a functional level, of course entails the use and analysis of statistical information.Hence, the BEA provides refer individuals with access to updated statistical information of the United States economy. Specifically, not only does the BEA website contain data regarding the local economy and the specific facets of the economy but it also provi des information regarding international accounts as well among some of the easily distinctive examples of statistical information shown on the BEA website are as follows real GDP, personalized income, international trade, and international transactions (BEA, 2010).Of course, aside from such, the website still contains less adept information such as news updates. For one, the oil spill incident as well as its implications for the United States economy is presented as one of the news highlights (BEA, 2010). Other related links containing business surveys, customer guides, research applications, and job openings are also available. Indeed, the BEA website contains a myriad of useful information, ranging from interoperable to the most technical, maintaining the economic awareness of the population.References Bureau of Economic Analysis. (2010). BEA Home Page. Retrieved from http//www. bea. gov/. Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Learn the Issues. Retrieved from http//www. epa . gov/epahome/learn. htm. Federal Aviation Administration. (2010). FAA Home Page. Retrieved from http//www. faa. gov/. Food and provender Service. (2010). Data and Statistics. Retrieved from http//www. fns. usda. gov/fns/data. htm.

Technology Is Being Used Increasingly in the

Argumentative Es s substructure Writing Tips Find your report From abortion to human trafficking, the sky is the limit when it comes to finding a het up national to present an argument about. Think about your stance atomic number 18 you going to be for or against human trafficking? Logically, most people would be against human trafficking but either way you lead have to be confident and comfortable in whatever stance you take. Additionally, you pass on need to be able to substantiate the facts and cleverly fuse them with your stance in site to arrive at a solid argumentative hear. This will require that you think about your stance on the issue taste writers world reviews.Think long and hard in order to better be able to discern where you argon trying to take the exit argumentatively. Do your homework There have undoubtedly been others who have argued for or against the topic that you chose who may have done it years prior to you even thought about it. Take time out to research how your predecessors argued their stance. This is not to say that you should mirror that stance, but it might give you a heads up and/or better tips on what direction you should be moving towards when it comes to the ebb and the menstruate of the argument.Know your op localise Every argumentative topic has a pro cheek and an opposing side. The best possible strategy that you can employ when compose the article is to roll in the hay your opponents stance on the issue. When you know how your opponent will think or what rebuttal he or she will try to use, then you will have an upper eliminate on how to out debate them. Knowing your opponent is ingrained in counter-attacking when it comes to your argumentative essay. Get the facts What good is an argumentative essay if there are no facts? The bottom line is that you need facts in order to oblige your argument on your controversial topic.No one wants to look like an amateur, and in order to avoid doing such you will ne ed to have cognitive and verifiable facts that will back up your argument completely. Without these facts your risk looking for both unprofessional and unprepared. Pick a topic that you are enthusiastic about When there is no passion in an argumentative essay then there is nothing to capture the attention of the reader. In order to convey your argument it is imperative for you to be passionate about either topic that you pick. If you do not believe in it then no one else will either. Steps in writing your Essay entry 1.Paraphrase the question 2. State your position totally/strongly/somewhat + agree/disagree consistence 3. Write topic sentences for each body paragraph Sequencing word + topic + point The chief(prenominal) reason why I believe teachers are necessary is because they are essential for disciplining and motivating students CONCLUSION 4. Summarise main points 5. Give your final opinion or recommendation/ restate your position A Sample of Argumentative Essay Technolog y is being employ increasingly in the classroom and some people believe that educators will become redundant. I somewhat disagree that teachers will be replaced by machines.The main reason why I think that teachers are essential is because they encourage and discipline students. Many people find it difficult to be interested in learning new things. Therefore educators are undeniable to make classes more interesting and stimulate students desires for learning. Also, in the case of schoolgirlish people, teachers often need to force students to learn through the use of punishments. other reason why teachers are needed is because they can teach one-year-old people important skills and values. This is because educators serve as role models to their students and teach them how to appropriately interact with their peers.Therefore, if people only learn using machines they will recede the opportunity to learn important social skills and values. However, schoolinging over the net inc ome certainly stretchs a lot of convenience. First, we are able to study in the comfort of our own homes, without the need to commute to school. Second, we can choose to study at any time we like even in the plaza of the night. In summary, I somewhat disagree that machines can replace teachers. This is because teachers can encourage students to learn and teach them how to interact with other people. Although, computers do offer the ability for people to learn anywhere at any time.

Global Warming Crisis Essay

Global heat pertains to the increase in temperature of the standard atmosphere ground on the entrapment of gases that be emitted from activities on the surface of the earth. The increase in temperature is a strike result of the greenho rehearse effect, which involves heat that originated from the sun, which is entrapped within the atmosphere due to several(prenominal) factors. Scientists have determined that the atmospheres temperature has increased since the industrial revolution, which has maximized the use of chemicals in manufacturing various kinds of materials in industry. there ar four brain gases that have been identified to be primarily responsible for the onset of orbicular heat. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is responsible for approximately half of the nursery gases in the atmosphere (Pearson and Palmer, 2000). This gas is a by-product of fossil fuel combustion, which involves burning of coal, lifelike gas and oil. It is in addition generated from deforestation activitie s, which have increased for expansion of industrialisation atomic number 18as.Trees utilize carbon dioxide in their photosynthetic reactions, but it there are fewer trees in the surroundings, less CO2 is removed from the atmosphere, leaving the environment with excess amounts of CO2. Another gas that has been determined to be responsible for institution-wide warming is chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are the primary constituent of plastics and aerosols, as well as refrigerants in air conditioners. Chlorofluorocarbons make up approximately 25% of the glasshouse gases in the atmosphere. Thirdly, methane gas (CH4), which comprises approximately 12% of the nursery gases, is also accountable for spherical warming.Methane gas is released during the decay of organic matter, as well as in the stomachs of cattle, sheep and termites, yet, most of the gas is currently generated by industrial companies. Lastly, nitrous oxide (N2O) is responsible for approximately 6% of the greenhouse gases. It is a by-product of industries, as well as nitrogen fertilizers, volcanic eruptions and livestock manure. Global warming not only affects the weather, but it will also affect earthy habitats. Higher levels of CO2 may facilitate the growth of forests, facilitating them to flourish and bloom.The tepid ocean waters will be helpful to fish and alga in the high seas. However, those organisms in higher elevations will find hassle in surviving in warmer environments. Higher temperatures in oceans may kill corals, which are the nurseries for fishes and other aquatic organisms. For the human population, ball-shaped warming may cause more incidents of infectious diseases such malaria, as well as systemic health problems such as heat touch and respiratory diseases. Currently, the world is confused as society is ignorant of the dilate effects of world-wide warming.Society is aware the summers are instanter interminable and more intense and winters are envious of summers wrat h, unleashing a fury that rivals the intensity of the heat. This is actually what world(a) warming does. It confuses the world and now currently has also succeeded in confounding scientists. From a scientific buck of view, global warming can be understood as a global environmental phenomenon which is characterized by an increase in the average temperature of the globes near-surface air and oceans (Smith and Reynolds, 2005).There is certainly no doubt that global warming has a very detrimental effect on the environment as it causes rising sea levels and alters the amount and pattern of precipitation that a areas all over the world get (Gregory et al. , 2002). These environmental converts are also the projected causes of other ecological changes such as increases in the frequence and intensity of extreme weather events which in turn creates changes in pastoral yields, glacier retreat, reduced summer stream flows, species extinctions and increases in the ranges of disease vectors (Choi and Fisher, 2003).Based on the current scientific projections, the temperature of the world is expected to increase by 1. 1 to 6. 4 C (2. 0 to 11. 5 F) between the years 1990 and 2100. opus most of the studies and projection models that have been utilized for these estimates cover the period up to the year 2100, global temperature warming and sea level rise are expected to continue for more than a millennium even if no further greenhouse gases are released after this date (Haigh, 2003).This is due to the liquescent of the polar ice caps which is estimated to continue due to the changes that have already occurred in the worlds temperature. One proposal to answer to the problem of global warming is a lot simpler in theory than it is in practice. prone the rate of stinting growth of many of the developing countries and the shift of takings to the lesser developed countries, the implementation of any global protocols is easier to imagine than to implement (Torn and Harte, 200 6).Greenhouse gases, which are cited as one of the main causes of global warming, are most commonly emitted from the highly industrialized countries and the less developed countries which avow heavily on industrial machinery for achievement. The problem in this scenario is that by in the raw back on the emission of greenhouse gases, a majority of the worlds production of most major goods will be affected. The economic costs not to mention the technological impediments that preventing the shift to more environmentally friendly methods make the reduction of these greenhouse gases extremely difficult (Rudiman, 2005).There have been steps that have been taken to reduce the levels of greenhouse gases. In order to address the situation of global warming, many countries have participated in the worlds primary international agreement on combating global warming which is the Kyoto Protocol. An amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on modality change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Pro tocol binds signatory countries to reduce their emissions of CO2 and five other greenhouse gases.In the alternative, it allows these countries to engage in emissions trading if they are able to avow or increase emissions of these gases (Wigley, 2007). The problem with this protocol, however, is that it exempts developing countries from meeting emission standards in Kyoto (Choi and Fisher, 2003). Some of the countries that have been exluded from this list are China and India, who are be as the second and third largest emitters of CO2, behind the United States. It is clear thus that even despite these actions much more work is needed in order to address the problem.The implementation of international protocols and requiring countries to meet certain environmental standards is certainly a big step towards addressing this issue. More intergovernmental cooperation is also other prospective answer to this problem. The more developed countries should also take the admit in encouraging the shift away from more traditional methods of production towards more environmentally friendly methods through the award of grants and exchange of engineering science (Torn and Harte, 2006).The creation of a body that is designed to not only specifically develop policies regarding this issue but also be given the causation to enforce these policies will allow for the more efficient reduction of these greenhouse gases (Torn and Harte, 2006). References Choi O and Fisher A (2003) The impacts of socioeconomic development and climate change on severe weather catastrophe losses Mid-Atlantic constituent (MAR) and the U. S. Climate Change Vol. 58, pp. 149. Gregory JM, Stouffer RJ and Raper SCG (2002) An observationally based estimate of the climate sensitivity. J.Climate 15(22)3117-21. Haigh JD (2003) The effects of solar variability on the Earths climate. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 361(1802)91-111. Lean JL, Wang YM and Sheeley NR (2002) The effect of increasing solar activity on the cheers total and open magnetic flux during multiple cycles Implications for solar forcing of climate. Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(24)2224. Pearson PN and Palmer MR (2000) Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the past 60 million years. record 406(6797)695699. Revkin AC (2005) Rise in gases unmatched by a level in ancient ice.New York Times, November 25, 2005. Rudiman W (2005) How Did Humans First switch Global Climate? Sci. Am. , March 2005 issue. Smith TM and Reynolds RW (2005) A global merged landairsea surface temperature reconstruction based on historical observations (18801997). J. Clim. 18(12) 2021-2036. Torn M and Harte J (2006) Missing feedbacks, noninterchangeable uncertainties, and the underestimation of future warming. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33(10)L10703. Wigley T (2007) The Kyoto Protocol CO2, CH4, and climate implications. Geophys. Res. Lett. 25(13)2285.

Sunday, February 24, 2019

Natureview Farm

T able of Contents Introduction2 Main Issues3 confederacy Background3 Natureviews Profile Products4 solid regimenstuff place Trends Analysis for constitutional growth4 yoghourt trade Trends5 Yogurt cracket part by Packaging6 Yogurt sicet Segmentation by region7 Yogurt Market Segmentation by Competitors8 Yogurt Market Segmentation by Distribution road10 mill Analysis10 Analysis of Strategic prep bedness Options11 Recommendations14 References14 Introduction Fundamentally, this paper is ab stunned our findings of the Natureview kindles slip study.In mold to find out all-around(prenominal)ly about this bon ton, we need to investigate further for the friendships past and current activities which is it result affect future offset of the club. All of this teaching is pressing to us in decision fashioning process. More everyplace, we could excessively make a decision what is the lift out strategy for the Natureview fire. To understand thoroughly about the compan y, we need to * Analyze the companys history, development, and ontogenesis. * Analyze the external environment. * assess the lift outline. Ex filmy each resource of the Natureview raise found on qualitative and quantitative analysis. * Make good words. Main Issues Currently the company confront a freshly challenge situation to trace the best trade proposal in order to grow r so farues by over 50% before the end of 2001. The main focus of the company was whether to string out into the super foodstuff contain to hit their expected revenue. A decision which would represent a study departure from the companys established deport strategy and which would usurpation every aspect of Natureviews business.Company Background Established in 1989, Natureview kindle is a small yoghurt maker which empha surfaces the use of inherent particles and a special process that gave the yoghourt its unique smooth, creamy texture without the schmaltzy thickeners which produces in high spirits quality yoghurt. The yogurt was manufactured at the Natureview farm fruit facility in Cabot, Vermont started with 2 coats of form in two flavours- plain and vanilla. The coats of shape argon 8-ounce (Oz) and 32-ounce (Oz).Natureview resurrects revenue had growth from less(prenominal) than $100,000 to 13 cardinals as reported in income statement 1999. Because of the empha size of it of cancel ingredients and it whole reputation for high quality and wide taste help the company to grow up to national dispersion went on to attain leaders in temperament food. By the year 2000, the company producing 12 preserve yogurt flavours in 8-Oz and 4 flavours in 32-Oz. The company had similarly started exploring Multipack yogurt produces for the child package in 4-Oz cup and yogurt package in tubes.Even though in 1997, Jim Wagner as Chief fiscal Officer has testimonial to arrange for an equity infusion from a venture capital buckram to fund strategic coronations are s uccessful, the investor now needed cash out of its investment in Natureview. Now Natureview management has faced critical line of work and need to find an a nonher(prenominal)(a) investor itself because their current goal is to increase revenues to $20 cardinal before the end of 2001. * Natureviews Profile Products Yogurt is a dairy crossing, the result of milk fermented in a carefully controlled environment.Special bacteria added to the milk change its texture and give yogurt its unique wellness properties it is a good source of calcium and improves digestion. Below are the criteria of the natures convergence 1. Natureview yogurt flavour and texture was the companys founders family yogurt recipe, the recipe used cancel ingredient and no artificial thickeners which produce great and high quality taste. 2. The company used milk from cows untreated with rGBH, an artificial growth hormone that increased milk production. 3.Because of their special process and ingredient, Naturevi ew life span on the shelf was 50 days longer examined to other competitions that 30 days. 4. Natureview has 12 refrigerated yogurt flavour in 8-Oz and four flavours in 32-Oz cups. Market Trends Analysis for primitive product 1. The organic foods market, worth $6. 5 gazillion in 1999, was predicted to grow to $13. 3 billion in 2003. 2. Generally, organic product consumer tended to have high incomes, have more(prenominal) than education, and live in the Northeast and West. 3. 67 % of U. S. ouseholds specify that expense was a barrier to their purchase of organic foods and 58% of consumer expressed that they would buy a more organic product if it were cheaper. 4. 44% of consumers want a wider filling of organic product in supermarkets. 5. Below are market skid findings * Yogurt Market Trends A comprehensive analysis must be applied in order to understand and evaluate the market trends of yogurt product. It is burning(prenominal) for the management to focus on the areas th at are needed for rise especially on customers satisfaction because it go forth yield greater improvementousness for the company.For instance, the management should know better on what are the current market trends and their customers wants from their product. In addition, or so factors in purchasing decisions that are made by customers should be analyze by the company. Several factors in purchasing decisions are such as packaging, flavour, harm, freshness and ingredients of the yogurt. Such product measurements are imperative not only to maintain the quality of the product itself, but it also will retain and attract more customers for choosing Natureview Farms yogurt rather than competitors yogurt. * Yogurt Market Segmentation by Packaging found on the market trends, the most popular sizes of yogurt cups were in 6-oz and 8-oz which contributed to 3% of the segments growth per year. In addition, these also were representing 74% of total category supermarkets gross gross sal es in U. S. dollars. Women especially bought 8-oz yogurt cups because of their health consciousness. The second largest segment is multipacks size which represented 9% total category supermarkets sales with 12. 5% growth per year. This second largest segment customarily consumed by children because of their mothers concern about their health and fastest growth.The last segment which is 32-oz. cup size represented 8% of total category supermarkets sales and was growing at a diminished of 2%. Normally, the buyers of 32-oz. were heavy yogurt consumers. They are either consumed the yogurt plain, added most ingredients or used it in recipes. Plain and vanilla were the most noted flavours. Buyers also put shuffle, expiration date and price as important purchase criteria for this size of yogurt. * Yogurt Market Segmentation by expanse found on the market segmentation by region, it could be determine that the West and the Northeast possess high market shares.The West contributed to 27% whereas the Northeast contributed to 26% of national U. S. market. The main factors that contributed to these high percentages were the shoppers who live in the West and the Northeast have higher(prenominal) incomes and more education. In addition, the southeastern possesses 25% and the Midwest possesses 22% of market shares. Regardless of track or distribution, the buyers habit of buying yogurt depended on their unique characteristics. Some of buyers were more come to about the quality of the yogurt while some of them were concerned about the yogurts price or vice versa. * Yogurt Market Segmentation by Competitors We had identified four close competitors of Natureview Farms yogurt. These slip by four competitors are Dannon, Yoplait, Breyers and Columbo. Dannon and Yoplait are controlling over 50% of the yogurt market share. As indicated in the supermarket Channels pie chart, we could see that Dannon holds 33% of yogurt market share whereas Yoplait holds 24%. The sales of t hese yogurts are conducted by two dominant distributor seams which are supermarket and infixed foods gestate.As we could see in the natural foods credit line, Natureview Farm was leading which holds 24% of yogurt market. Other than these, these yogurts revenues were also generated through warehouse clubs, conveniences stores, do drugs stores and mass merchandisers. * * * Yogurt Market Segmentation by Distribution Channel Based on yogurt market segmentation by distribution take, we could conclude that the distribution ravishs were divided into supermarkets and natural foods store. 97 % of yogurts were exchange in the supermarkets while 3% of yogurts were sold in the natural foods store.The sales and distribution process of Channels Supermarket Channels Process Supplier aka shaper usually sends their product to a large distribution centre, which in treat shipped curbly to the supermarket chains warehouse. The distributors and retailers charged a mark-up price on product tha t flowed through their warehouses or store. In order to place the product in the supermarket, manufacturer will required to pay one-off condemnation slotting lean for each SKU only in the commencement ceremony year it was introduced and and so to form in in regular trade promotions.If the SKU failed to show any profit for the supermarket in spite of appearance the year, the supermarket would discontinue the product and would require a new slotting fee wages if the manufacturer sought reauthorization of the SKU. Some key points in the distribution of supermarket channel process are as below 1. The typical distributor valuation account is 15% and the typical retailer margin is 27% 2. Supermarket would charge in average of $0. 74 for 8-oz cup of yogurt, $2. 70 for 32-o cup of yogurt, and $2. 85 for 4-oz cup of multipack. Natural Food Channels processFirstly, manufacturer shipped the product to the natural wholesalers and then wholesalers will ship the products to the distribut ors which responsible to delivered product to the retailers. allocators would deliver products individually to the retailers, and in some cases even stock the shelves and track paperwork. Lastly customer gets the product from the retailers. Natural Food retailers will charge the manufacturer for one m allotment of one free case of product for every new SKU authorized for distribution in its first year. Some key points in the distribution of natural food channel process are as below 1.The typical natural food wholesaler margin is 7%, the natural food distributor margin is 9% and the typical retailer margin is 35% 2. Retailers would charge in average of $0. 88 for 8-oz cup of yogurt, $3. 19 for 32-o cup of yogurt, and $3. 35 for 4-oz cup of multipack. Exhibit 1 distance of channel to market Channel gross profit margin Analysis By apply Margin analysis , we bottom of the inning identify the profitability of these channels and we can indicate which channel would provide the expec ted revenues of Natureview Farm. This analysis is based on the given point in the case study and each of the analysis is divided based on type of yogurt size.The results are as below. 1. will of Natural Foods Channel building block address for 8-oz cup contribution Margin regularize whole shifting Price voice Margin Unit % Mark up maker 0. 31 36% 0. 48 0. 17 56% Wholesaler 0. 48 7% 0. 52 0. 04 8% Distributor 0. 52 9% 0. 57 0. 05 10% Retailer 0. 57 35% 0. 88 0. 31 54% Customer 0. 88 Unit Cost for 32-oz cup Contribution Margin consider Unit selling Price Contribution Margin Unit % Mark up maker 0. 99 44% 1. 75 0. 76 77% Wholesaler 1. 75 7% 1. 89 0. 13 8% Distributor 1. 9 9% 2. 07 0. 19 10% Retailer 2. 07 35% 3. 19 1. 12 54% Customer 3. 19 Unit Cost for 4-oz multipack Contribution Margin Rate Unit Selling Price Contribution Margin Unit % Mark up Manufacturer 1. 15 69% 1. 84 0. 69 60% Wholesaler 1. 84 7% 1. 98 0. 14 8% Distributor 1. 98 9% 2. 18 0. 20 10% Re tailer 2. 18 35% 3. 35 1. 17 54% Customer 3. 35 2. Result of Supermarket Channel Unit Cost for 8-oz cup Contribution Margin Rate Unit Selling Price Contribution Margin Unit % Mark up Manufacturer 0. 31 32% 0. 6 0. 15 48% Distributor 0. 46 15% 0. 54 0. 08 18% Retailer 0. 54 27% 0. 74 0. 20 37% Customer 0. 74 Unit Cost for 32-oz cup Contribution Margin Rate Unit Selling Price Contribution Margin Unit % Mark up Manufacturer 0. 99 41% 1. 68 0. 69 69% Distributor 1. 68 15% 1. 97 0. 30 18% Retailer 1. 97 27% 2. 7 0. 73 37% Customer 2. 7 Unit Cost for 4-oz multipack Contribution Margin Rate Unit Selling Price Contribution Margin Unit % Mark up Manufacturer 1. 15 35% 1. 77 0. 62 54% Distributor 1. 77 15% 2. 8 0. 31 18% Retailer 2. 08 27% 2. 85 0. 77 37% Customer 2. 85 As you can see, % mark-up in Natural foods channel is higher compared to supermarket channel in all sizes of yogurt in the manufacturer phase which means higher profitability. Natural food channel is ab le to cost more to the customer compared supermarket channel due to lower price sensitivity among natural foods customers as well as % mark-up from the Natural foods wholesaler. SWOT Analysis The overall evaluation of a companys strengths, weaknesses, opport unit of measurementies, and threats is called SWOT analysis.Its a way of observe the external and internal marketing environment. External marketing (Opportunity and Threat) Analysis Opportunities 1. Supermarket channel will provide the companys noteworthy potential of growth for get higher revenues. 2. Yogurt sales through natural food stores had grown 20% per year. 3. Through the supermarket channel, the price of the product can be lower. Threats 1. The main competitors in the supermarket channel are getting stronger with the top four competitors which are Dannon, Yoplait, Breyers and Colombo. . Company may have to depot Internal Marketing (Strength and Weakness) Analysis Strengths 1. Natureview is a major and trusted pi t for the natural food channel and has developed strong relationships with leading natural food retailers 2. Natureview has a strong reputation for high quality and great taste. 3. Natureviews yogurt has longer average shelf life compare other products. 4. The company has rapid growth revenue from $100,000 to $13 Million within 10 historic period. 5. Natureview is a leader distributor of natural food channel. 6.Strong operational efficiency because the company is using creative , low-cost rebel marketing Weaknesses 1. Natureview will heavily depend on its brokers knowledge of promotional and merchandising requirement. 2. Inadequate operational capacity because ineffective to generate the volume requirements needed to meet consumer demand of other distribution channels. 3. Relatively small company compared with other potential competitors in supermarket channel. 4. Natureview only invested 3% of total expenses in research & developments which cause discourage product innovation.An alysis of Strategic planning Options The company has three natural selections needed to be analyzed and be identified which survival will help the company to give their goal. Each of the options has their own importance and benefits however they also have some limitation attached on them. Option 1 The first option was strongly advocated by Vice president of sales Walter Bellini. The idea is to dissipate six SKUs of the 8-Oz. product line into one or two selected supermarket channel regions. Pros 1. 8-Oz cups have the highest demand in the refrigerated yogurt market and will be able to provide the expected revenues. . Based on other natural food brands success in expanding their product in the supermarket channel has shown significant proves Natureviews product will have a high chance of success. 3. Natureview is the leading naturals foods brand of refrigerated yogurt and have uniquely positioned to capitalize on the growing trend in natural and organic foods. 4. Natureview will have the advantage as the first brand to accede the channel due to supermarket channel will likely to give permission only to one natural yogurt manufacturer. Natureview will be the first mover in this channel 5.Some industry experts predicted unit volume growth of organic product at supermarket will be at 20% per year from 2001 to 2006. Cons 1. The 8-Oz cups size received the highest level of militant in trade promotions and marketing budget. 2. The management had estimated for comprehensive advertising plan will cost $1. 2 million per region per year and Natureviews sales, general and administrative expenses (SG& A) would increase by $ 320,000 yearbookly. 3. Due to Lack of arrest in supermarket channel, their broker might take advantage of their relationship with top supermarkets retails chains in Northeast and West. . This option might construct direct competition with national yogurt manufacturer. 5. Might create conflict of channel between supermarket and natural food stor es. Option 2 The second option was advocated by the vice president of operations Jack Gottlieb. The idea is to expand 4 SKUs of the 32-Oz. Based on the giving points we can identify the pros and cons as below Pros 1. The gross profit margin for the 32-oz cups is higher at 43. 6 % compared to 8-oz cups at 36%. 2. This size of 32-oz cups was potentially become stronger competitive advantage like longer shelf life and lower marketing expenses. 3.This brand had turn overd a 45% share of this size segment in the natural foods channel. 4. The management also assume that the company could sell 5. 5 million incremental units in the first years by expand more in supermarket retails across the united state. Cons 1. This option will have higher slotting fees due to national distribution. 2. There are no guaranteed customer acceptances towards the multi-use size of yogurt. 3. With the additions to sales headcount for the 32-oz,that will increase the SG& A cost to $160,000. 00 4. They also conc erned on sales teams ability to achieve full national distribution in 12 months. . Might create conflict of channel between supermarket and natural food stores. Option 3 The third option was advocated by Walkers colleagues Kelly Riley, the assistant marketing director, she supported the idea to introduce two SKUs of a childrens multi-pack into the natural food channel. Based on her arguments, we can identify the pros and cons as below Pros 1. Natureview Farm is the established leader in the natural food channel and has a strong relationship with the leading food natural food channel retailers. 2. Sales and marketing expenses were the lowest compared to other options. 3.Choosing this option will allow the company to have more time to prepare before entering the supermarket channel. 4. The financial potential was very winsome with expected high margin of 37. 6%. 5. Natureview product positioning is rarified for the new Multi-pack product launch. Cons 1. Natureview Farm will miss the opportunity to enter the supermarket before competitors. Supermarket retailer would likely authorize only one organic yogurt brand. 2. Natureviews marketing department was unprepared to handle the demands on resources and staffing that will be needed once the company entered the supermarket channel.Option financial Overview Based on the case study, we have analyzed all three options that Natureview Farm tried to include in their future business plan. For the first option, Natureview Farm idea is to expand 6 SKUs into supermarket channel with 8 oz cups to get more profit. Refer to appendage 1 Natureview Farm total estimated for investment expenses is quite an higher than another option. However, even though Natureview spend more for the investment we can see that total expected profit is positively increased by annually.To get expected for this option need For option two, Natureview Farm next idea is to expend 4 SKUs 32-oz into supermarket channel to their future business plannin g because their product is longer shelf life. Based on appendix 2, the investment plan is lower than option 1. The investment has divided to four regions for selling. Even through the management estimated that they can sell this brand with higher sold, the cost of the good sold also is quite higher and this is expenses will affect the profitability of goods sold. The last option is Natureview Farm plan to expand 2 SKUS 4-oz multipack into natural food channel.Refer to appendix 3, we can see that the cost of goods sold is quite higher even through this idea not involved slotting fee, the estimated annual profit is not shown in positive way. Based on the calculation, the cost of goods sold and estimated annual profit is shown the selling product is lower profitability. Based on the financial analysis, we can identify some trends The highest Profitability is option 1. Based on the graph, the higher of total investment expenses are option 1. The higher enthronization ROI is option 3. R ecommendationsAfter all analysis that we have done in this case study, our recommendation for Natureview Farm for their future planning are option 1. This is because based on our analysis we can see option 1 is the best choice to get more profitability in 5 years onward as planning. This option is to expand 6 SKUs of the 8-oz size into eastern and western supermarket regions. Even though the risk of going to supermarket channel is higher, Natureview Farm should expand into this channel because as we can see, two natural food companies expanded into this channel and increased their revenues by 200 %.To achieve their mission, they need to take the risks for get their estimated projected net profit. In addition, incoming to this supermarket channel with 8 oz size is more viable than option 2 where to expend into this channel with 32 oz cup size. The 8 oz size price initially attempt to negotiate retail price more than 32-oz size where the price of product will also affect the consumer choice. This option focuses on regional distribution instead of national, which should make it easier to implement this product information to region consumer.The level of education and higher income of consumer is also a contend for consumer to buy this natural food product. Natureview Farm can also market their product to this type of consumer with our product advantages such as the product has a longer shelf life, uses natural ingredients and uses only organic ingredients. The next recommendation strategy is, Natureview farms need to utilize more advanced in monitoring the technology and systematic management to keep track the trends so that they constantly be the consumer choice in natural food products.To become a successful natural food company in this channel, they need to be more systematic and always have good relationship with media, consumer and retailer. References 1. http//www. investopedia. com/ footing/g/guerrilla-marketing. asp 2. http//Prezi. com/natureview farm s. 3. http// www. slideshare. net/nature -view-case 1 . Based on investopedia. com, Margin analysis uses the percentage calculation to provide a comprehensive measure of a companys profitability on a historical land (3-5 years) and in comparison to peer companies and industry benchmarks. 2 . Based on investopedia. com, Mark-up is the difference between an investments lowest current offering price among dealers and the higher price a dealer charges a customer. 3 . Guerrilla Marketing is different than traditional marketing in that it often relies on personalised interaction and has a smaller budget, and it focuses on smaller groups of promoters that are responsible for getting the word out in a particular spatial relation rather than on wide-spread media campaigns.

CASE: Accounting for the iPhone at Apple Inc. Essay

The non-GAAP numbers of orchard apple tree Inc. reflect its economics better. Because, in the lively method of accounting, revenue and cost of goods sold argon spread oer the lifetime of the product (expected 24-months), while the costs incurred for engineering, sales, marketing and warranty atomic number 18 recorded immediately. This accurate recording of expenses while recognizing only a mathematical function of the cost of goods sold therefore showed reduced margins. While this did not allude the cash flow of the business, it affected the periodic profits that the company was reflecting which was salutary a fraction of the actual profits that the company made. As these deferred revenues were climbing with increased sales turn all over, the differences in actual profits for the period and account profits (one quarter at a time, due to subscription accounting) were mounting too. inclined that its sales were exponential, these small fractions of deferred revenue didnt sum up at the same rate as the sales, which would have otherwise given Apple Inc an edge in the average investors priorities. This affected the average investor since he was futile to see the entire profits that the company was making and because appreciate and predict its actual performance in the future. He was unable to evaluate effectively the holistic performance of the company. Having accurate information close Apple where Apple recognized its revenues immediately upon sale, its growth would have been visible, line of products prices would have gone up dramatically in conjunction with the germinate in sales.For Apple Inc., it would matter positively if FASB changed the rules of revenue acknowledgment for smartphones. Although phones are not intended to be the primary goods sold for Apple (Mac is), contradictory what it expected, the phone sales were on the rise and the company found that downloading programs and apps was real noble by phone customers than Mac. This was large ly because of the free upgrades given to iPhone customers. only if the fact that about 30% of the App store revenue was from the sale of an iPhone app and the developer get 70%1, shows the rising revenues from iPhones in relation to other products of the firm. Phone revenues thus were showing significant impact on the companys books of accounts. In this case of subscription accounting, Apple Inc.s 4th Quarter results of 2008 showed a non-GAAP alteration of $2 billion. The cost of providing unspecified additional software products and upgrades was not considered for this.The fire Income thus computed showed a final figure which was 115% ($2.4 B over $1.1 B) mark up on the Net Income as per subscription accounting. This is too high a margin to ignore for any company. Therefore, with increasing complexity of tortuous sales in the cell phone space, not recognizing revenues (and hence performance) immediately, put the company in a disadvantaged position in coincidence with their n on-U.S. counterparts, where IFRS allowed subjective measures to be used by companies. A marginal portion of revenue was allowed to be deferred for future recognition, which was for any software updates made in future. So, in order to not be disadvantaged by distinct reporting standards, Apple would gain competitive edge if FASB changes the rules of revenue recognition for smart phones. Apple should hence advocate it.

Saturday, February 23, 2019

Ar 670-1 – Essay 5

?AR 670-1 There ar m whatever regular multitude regulations dealing with the army however the unitary that I am going to talk about today is army regulation 670-1. What is army regulation 670-1 covering in the f solely in all in states army? spends Regulation 670-1 deals with the get out and app auricula atriiing of military alikes for my penning I forget recite the way a person is so-called to jade their identical in army text and hence recount you what it retrieves in my own words. Starting with the variancealisations that deals with the reason I am writing this report right now. AR 670-1 starts dour-key with subprogram 1 which is General information and responsibili strings.Part one is made up of 19 voices they ar listed as followed 11. Purpose 12. References 13. Explanation of abbreviations and wrong 14. General 15. How to recommend changes to ground forces unvarieds 16. Classification of table service and utility or field coherents 17. Personal style policies 18. Hair and fingernail standards and grooming policies 19. similar appearance and total 110. When the get into of the phalanx uniform is infallible or exterminateed 111. Uniformity of real 112. characteristic uniforms and uniform keepsakes 113. hold out of noncombatant bind of change state 114. Wear of jewellery 115. Wear of eyeglasses, sunglasses, and contact lenses 116. Wear of appellation tags and security badges 117. Wear of personal protective or brooding clothing 118. Wear of organizational protective or wistful clothing 119. Restrictions on the purchase, possession, and reproduction of heraldic items Being that I am a egg-producing(prenominal) in the unit of mea authenticmented states army non all of the regulation app equivocations to me. For instance I am non a guy so I dont have to worry about how to handgrip my essentialinessache trimmed or well train that that doesnt mean that I should non know these things because when I do be come an NCO I lead have soldiers that atomic number 18 manly that I need to nourishment squ bed away.But since I am writing this paper on myself and AR 670-1 I ordain us write the stuff that relates to my punishment and to me. Starting with 1-1. 1-1 is written as follows 11. Purpose This regulation prescribes the laterality for get out, com agency, and fall a dispelification of uniforms, and the occasions for softening all personal (clothing bag issue), optional, and comm exclusively c ar faint organizational force uniforms. It also prescribes the awards, insignia, and accouterments authorize for conduct on the uniform, and how these items argon exhausted. General information is also provided on the authorized material, design, and uniform quality control arrangement. This paratroopergraph named purpose states that AR 670-1 tells you the way you should arrogate, set together, and how the uniform should look when you have it on. It goes on to say that the way that the army or the unit adopt thins their uniform should non be changed but move together in an organized group. It also negotiation about awards, insignia,and what is allowed when it comes to the material used the way the uniform is designed and how they should be ill-defined at all clocks. With the soldiers in the aforementioned(prenominal) uniform the army has system control. The abutting section 1-2 is written as followed 12. References Required and related publications be listed in appendix A. In this section of AR 670-1 it entirely tells us that if we need to see the publications that they atomic number 18 listed in the bum of the book. The next section to look at is 1-3 13. Explanation of abbreviations and terms Abbreviations and special terms used in this regulation ar explained in the glossary. ?This section states that all abbreviated items throughout AR 670-1 provide be in the back of the glossary. 14. General a. Only uniforms, accessories, and insignia prescr ibed in this regulation or in the common tables of allowance (CTA), or as approved by Headquarters, De positionment of the array (HQDA), give be worn by military group in the US armament.Unless specified in this regulation, the commander issuing the clothing and equipment will establish founder policies for organizational clothing and equipment. No item governed by this regulation will be altered in any way that changes the basic design or the intended concept of fit as described in TM 10227 and AR 70084, including plating, smoothing, or removing detail features of metal items, or new(prenominal) than altering the garble or appearance. All illustrations in this regulation should coincide with the text. The written description will control any inconsistencies between the text and the illustration. b.AR 701 prescribes Department of the Army (DA) policies, responsibili pull outs, and administrative procedures by which all clothing and individual(a) equipment used by Army pers onnel are initiated, designed, developed, tested, approved, fielded, and modified. c. AR 38510 prescribes DA policies, responsibilities, and administrative procedures and funding for protective clothing and equipment. d. In conformation with chapter 45, section 771, title 10, United States Code (10 USC 771), no person that a ingredient of the US Army whitethorn wear the uniform, or a distinctive part of the uniform of the US Army unless oppositewise authorized by law.Additionally, no person except a member of the US Army whitethorn wear a uniform, any part of which is similar to a distinctive part of the US Army uniform. This includes the distinctive uniforms and uniform items listed in paragraph 112 of this regulation. Further, soldiers are non authorized to wear distinctive uniforms or uniform items of the US Army or of other US Services with, or on civil clothing, except as provided in chapters 27 through 30 of this regulation. This part states that lone(prenominal)(pr enominal) uniforms that are authorized by the CTA and HQDA will be allowed to be worn by the units in that military.But at the same time the commander that authorizes your clothing washbasin tell you what to wear and what not to wear on it. For instance, when we were down range and the battalion commander told us that we we unless allowed to wear the 172nd patch so we could be in unison and so that people could know who we deployed with he had the right to do that. But the commander could not go out of the regulations of AR 670-1. So if the commander determined to change the design of the flight vest because it looks cool and it is the way he wanted to look hat is against AR670-1 the commander spate only land to the regulation but movenot moderate away from it. This section also states that only a person from The united sates army can wear the uniform that the military issues out. This section is stating that if I have a uniform and I dont want it and my brother does I cannot give it to him because it is property of the united states army and he is not. Also if I have a pair of ACU trousers and the knees are worn in them I am not allowed to cut them run into and wear them as civil attire. 15.How to recommend changes to Army uniforms a. Army Ideas For Excellence Program (AIEP). If a major Army command (MACOM) recommends acclaim of an AIEP prompting, the recommendation will be forwarded to the Project Manager-Soldier Systems (SEQ), Bldg. 328, 5901 Putnam Road, Fort Belvoir, VA 220605852, for consideration. Each suggestion forwarded to the project manager will reflect the MACOM position contain all appropriate supporting documentation and be signed by the commander, substitute commander, chief of staff, or comparable level hiticial.Suggestions not recommended for adoption at any level will not be forwarded to PM-Soldier. Suggestions forwarded without a MACOM position will be returned to the MACOM for action. b. General comments and suggestions. Comme nts and suggestions regarding the policy, criteria, and administrative instructions concerning individual military decorations, the Good Conduct Medal, service medals and service ribbons, combat and special learning badges and tabs, and unit decorations will be processed in accordance with AR 600822. This section talks about how to go about qualification changes to an army uniform.The only ways you can go about make changes to the uniform is if a major Army command entrust grace of the change suggested. Then it will then go to the project manager-soldier system to get looked at to see if they will consider the change. They will then get all documents or paper croak that supports the reason they recommended the change. But if it was not recommended on any level of the chain then to the PM-Soldier. The second part of 1-5 talks about General comments and suggestions regarding policy, criteria, and administrative instructions concerning ertain people much(prenominal) as the sincer e conduct medal, service medals and ribbons, combat badges and special skill badges and tabs and unit decorations but they will be worn only by and in a manner that comply with the rules standards or laws of army regulation 600-8-22. 16. Classification of service and utility or field uniforms a. The male course of study A service uniform consists of the Army young (AG) coating and trousers, a short-or big-sleeved AG trace 415 tog with a depressed four-in-hand tie, and other authorized accessories. b. The male socio-economic class B service uniform is the same as class A, except the service coat is not worn.The black four-in-hand tie is required with the long-sleeved AG shade 415 shirt when the long-sleeved shirt is worn without the class A coat, as an outer garment the tie is optional with the short-sleeved shirt. c. The womanish class A service uniform consists of the Army green coat and skirt or slacks, a short-or long-sleeved AG shade 415 shirt with a black neck tab, and other authorized accessories. The Army green maternity uniform (slacks or skirt) is also classified as a class A service uniform when the tunic is worn.When the tunic is worn, womanishs will wear the neck tab with both the short- and long-sleeved maternity shirts. d. The pistillate class B service uniform is the same as the class A, except that neither the service coat nor the maternity tunic are worn. The black neck tab is required only when vesture the long-sleeved AG shade 415 shirt or the long-sleeved maternity shirt without the class A coat or tunic the neck tab is optional with the short-sleeved adaptation of both shirts. e. Class C uniforms are the utility, field, hospital duty, food service, and other organizational uniforms.F. See the table of prescribed dress in appendix B. This section talks about the action or process of classifying something gibe to shared qualities or characteristics of service and utility field uniforms. But since I am a distaff I will only l owmine down the portion that relates to me. So with that said I will acquire down sections C, D, and E. Section C talks about the class As service uniforms. The service class a uniforms for females have the Army green coat and skirt or pants. Short and long sleeve light green shirts and a tunic which is a neck piece is worn.The female just like the males also have class B service uniforms. The class As and the class Bs dont really differ from each other. The only difference is that the female wears the tunic or neck piece with the long sleeve or short sleeve maternity shirts without the jacket or coat to go with it. Another difference is that with the class Bs the neck tab is only worn with the long sleeve shirt and not the short sleeve one. And start the class C uniform is the uniform that you wear on a daily basis for work. Whether it is the utility, field, hospital duty, food service, and other uniforms that is used by the unit. 7. Personal appearance policies a. General. The A rmy is a uniformed service where reckon is judged, in part, by the manner in which a soldier wears a prescribed uniform, as well as by the individuals personal appearance. Therefore, a neat and well-groomed appearance by all soldiers is profound to the Army and contributes to building the pride and esprit essential to an effective military force. A vital ingredient of the Armys strength and military potency is the pride and self-discipline that American soldiers bring to their Service through a orthodox military image.It is the responsibility of commanders to ensure that military personnel infra their command present a neat and soldierly appearance. Therefore, in the absence of specific procedures or guidelines, commanders must determine a soldiers compliance with standards in this regulation. Soldiers must take pride in their appearance at all times, in or out of uniform, on and off duty. Pride in appearance includes soldiers personal fitness and adherence to welcome ang le standards, in accordance with AR 6009. b. Exceptions to appearance standards ground on spectral practices. 1) As provided by AR 60020, paragraph 56, and melodic theme to temporary revocation because of health, sentry duty, or mission requirements, the following applies to the wear of unearthly trim, articles, or jewelry. The term religious apparel is defined as articles of clothing worn as part of the observance of the religious faith proficient by the soldier. Religious articles include, but are not limited to, medallions, piddling booklets, pictures, or copies of religious symbols or writing carried by the individual in wallets or pockets.Except as noted beneath, personnel whitethorn not wear religious items if they do not receive the standards of this regulation, and requests for accommodation will not be entertained (see AR 60020, para 56g(2)(d)). (a) Soldiers may wear religious apparel, articles, or jewelry with the uniform, to include the fleshly fitness unifor m, if they are neat, conservative, and discreet. Neat conservative, and discreet is defined as ascertaining the uniform criteria of this regulation. In other words, when religious jewelry is worn, the uniform must meet the same standards of wear as if the religious jewelry were not worn.For example, a religious item worn on a chain may not be discernible when worn with the utility, service, dress, or mess uniforms. When worn with the personal fitness uniform, the item should be no more visible than identification (ID) tags would be in the same uniform. The largeness of chains worn with religious items should be approximately the same size as the width of the ID tag chain. (b) Soldiers may not wear these items when doing so would impede with the process of their duties or present a safety concern.Soldiers may not be prohibited, however, from wearing religious apparel, articles, or jewelry meeting the criteria of this regulation just because they are religious in nature, if wear is permitted of similar items of a nonreligious nature. A specific example would be wearing a ring with a religious symbol. If the ring meets the uniform standards for jewelry and is not worn in a work area where rings are prohibited because of safety concerns, then wear is allowed and may not be prohibited only when because the ring bears a religious symbol. c) During a worship service, rite, or ritual, soldiers may wear visible or apparent religious articles, symbols, jewelry, and apparel that do not meet commonplace uniform standards. Commanders, however, may place sane limits on the wear of non- lenient items of religious apparel during worship services, rites, or rituals conducted in the field for operational or safety reasons. When soldiers in uniform wear visible religious articles on much(prenominal) occasions, they must ensure that these articles are not permanently affixed or appended to any prescribed article of the uniform. d) Chaplains may wear religious attire as described in this regulation, CTA 50909, and AR 1651 in the performance of religious services and other official duties, as required. Commanders may not prohibit chaplains from wearing religious symbols that are part of the chaplains duty uniform. (See AR 60020, para 56g(7). ) (2) Soldiers may wear religious he matchress darn in uniform if the principalgear meets the following criteria. (a) It must be subdued in color (black, brown, green, dark or navy blue, or a combination of these color in). b) It must be of a style and size that can be completely covered by standard military headgear, and it cannot interfere with the proper wear or functioning of protective clothing or equipment. (c) The headgear cannot bear any writing, symbols, or pictures. (d) Personnel will not wear religious headgear in place of military headgear when military headgear is required (Outdoors, or indoors when required for duties or ceremonies). (3) Personal grooming. Hair and grooming practices are governed by paragraph 18 of this regulation, and exceptions or accommodations ground on religious practices will not be granted.As an exception, policy exceptions cornerstoned on religious practice given to soldiers in accordance with AR 60020 on or prior to 1 January 1986 remain in effect as long as the soldier remains otherwise qualified for retention. 1-7 is the way a person dresses in their uniform. Its their personal appearance. this section states that the army is judge based on the amount of discipline the manner and the way a soldier wears his or her owned uniform. And by the way a soldier looks in their uniform or their personal appearance. This is why a soldier should take pride in the way they look all morning. o matter how bad they feels when they are getting dressed in the morning. A soldier should unendingly have on a clean uniform on and conducts good personal hygiene. Their uniform should not be hanging off of them or too tight. their cops-breadth should remain neatly done for females and for males should always be cut to standards. But that isnt the only thing that a female and males have to maintain in the united states military. manlikes and females have to maintain their weight at all times. Soldiers should always maintain a well groomed appearance because they never know who is watching them.Soldiers should maintain their military appearance whether they are in or out of uniform. When a soldier maintains their physical appearance and takes pride in the way that they look it not only makes them feel better about themselves as a soldier but it also reads that they take pride in their unit and also present the self discipline that was embedded in them. The commanders hire out is to make sure that as a soldier it is they have a neat and presentable appearance at all time. Soldiers can also wear jewelry but only under certain terms and conditions such as if it is a part of their religious beliefs.Religious apparel for the army is listed as s uch medallions, small booklets such as bibles, pictures, or copies of religious symbols or writing carried by the individual in wallets or pockets such as verses from a bible, or hyms from a religious song book and and so on but if the jewelry or religious items do not meet the standards of the army regulations they can not wear them. Take me for example, i work on weapons and say if i have a ring on that had a cross on it i could not wear it because with my job if i was to work on a weapon with the ring on and the ring gets snagged on the bolt of a 50 cal. s i go to charge it and i release the handle from the ring be snagged on the handle when i let go of it my finger could be ripped off. Any religious apparel that when worn can put your behavior at harm or threaten your ability to work can not be worn in the uniform according to the army regulation. Another example of an improper religious apparel that cannot be worn darn in uniform is tee shirts. Say that I have this t-shirt that has a picture of god on it and I wear it every sunday to church I would not be able to wear it in uniform because it could make my uniform look massy and stick about out.The shirt could stick out over or away from under my ACU top. It could make my uniform a little more form engagement then it should be and it would look bad on the unit if I was to present myself in public like that. So us to show you a couple of examples of why not all religious apparel cannot be worn in military uniform. Another thing to add to the the wear of jewelry in the united states military and it also includes the physical fitness uniform is if they are neat, conservative, and discreet. Meaning dressing the way that the army regulation wants you to dress.There are yet some jewelry that you can not wear while you are in the army such as stomach piercings also known as abdomen piercings, breast piercings, ear piercings while you are in uniform and if you are a guy no piercings in your ear at all, fa cial piercings such as lip rings, tongue rings, noise rings, no piercings that start from the potty of your ear and go to the top of your ear if you are a female you are only allowed to have one hole in your ear and thats it. 18. Hair and fingernail standards and grooming policies a. Hair. (1) General.The requirement for pig grooming standards is obligatory to maintain uniformity within a military population. Many hairstyles are acceptable, as long as they are neat and conservative. It is not accomplishable to address every acceptable hairstyle, or what constitutes eccentric or conservative grooming. Therefore, it is the responsibility of leaders at all levels to exercise good perceptiveness in the enforcement of Army policy. All soldiers will comply with the hair, fingernail, and grooming policies while in any military uniform or while in civilian robes on duty. a) Leaders will judge the correctness of a particular hairstyle by the appearance of headgear when worn. Soldiers w ill wear headgear as described in the applicable chapters of this regulation. Headgear will fit snugly and comfortably, without distortion or excessive gaps. Hairstyles that do not allow soldiers to wear the headgear properly, or that interfere with the proper wear of the protective mask or other protective equipment, are prohibited. (b) Extreme, eccentric, or trendy haircuts or hairstyles are not authorized. If soldiers use dyes, tints, or bleaches, they must choose those that result in cancel hair colour in.Colors that bear off from a professional military appearance are prohibited. Therefore, soldiers should avoid using colors that result in an extreme appearance. Applied hair colors that are prohibited include, but are not limited to, purple, blue, pink, green, orange, smart (fire-engine) red, and fluorescent or neon colors. It is the responsibility of leaders to use good judgment in determining if applied colors are acceptable, based upon the overall effect on soldiers appea rance. (c) Soldiers who have a texture of hair that does not part naturally may cut a part into the hair.The part will be one straight line, not coloured or curved, and will fall in the area where the soldier would unremarkably part the hair. Soldiers will not cut designs into their hair or sell. (2) Male haircuts will conform to the following standards. (a) The hair on top of the head must be neatly groomed. The continuance and bulk of the hair may not be excessive or present a ragged, unkempt, or extreme appearance. The hair must present a tapered appearance. A tapered appearance is one where the outline of the soldiers hair conforms to the inning of the head, curving inward to the natural termination point at the base of the neck.When the hair is combed, it will not fall over the ears or eyebrows, or touch the collar, except for the closely cut hair at the back of the neck. The block-cut fullness in the back is permitted to a moderate degree, as long as the tapered look is m aintained. In all cases, the bulk or length of hair may not interfere with the normal wear of headgear (see para 18a(1)(a), above) or protective masks or equipment. Males are not authorized to wear braids, cornrows, or dreadlocks (unkempt, twisted, insipid, individual move of hair) while in uniform or in civilian clothes on duty. Hair that is clipped closely or shaved to the scalp is authorized. b) Males will keep sideburns neatly trimmed. Sideburns may not be flared the base of the sideburn will be a clean-shaven, horizontal line. Sideburns will not extend below the lowest part of the exterior ear opening. (c) Males will keep their face clean-shaven when in uniform or in civilian clothes on duty. Mustaches are permitted if worn, males will keep mustaches neatly trimmed, tapered, and tidy. Mustaches will not present a chopped off or bushy appearance, and no portion of the mustache will cover the upper lip line or extend sideways beyond a vertical line drawn upward from the corner s of the mouth (see figure 11).Handlebar mustaches, goatees, and beards are not authorized. If appropriate medical authority prescribes beard growth, the length required for medical treatment must be specified. For example, The length of the beard will not exceed 1? 4 inch (see TB MED 287). Soldiers will keep the growth trimmed to the level specified by appropriate medical authority, but they are not authorized to shape the growth into goatees, or Fu Manchu or handlebar mustaches. d) Males are prohibited from wearing wigs or hairpieces while in uniform or in civilian clothes on duty, except to cover natural baldness or physical disfiguration caused by accident or medical procedure. When worn, wigs or hairpieces will conform to the standard haircut criteria as stated in 18a(2)(a), above. (3) egg-producing(prenominal) haircuts will conform to the following standards. (a) Females will ensure their hair is neatly groomed, that the length and bulk of the hair are not excessive, and that the hair does not present a ragged, unkempt, or extreme appearance. correspondingwise, trendy styles that result in shaved portions of the scalp (other than the neckline) or designs cut into the hair are prohibited. Females may wear braids and cornrows as long as the braided style is conservative, the braids and cornrows lie snugly on the head, and any hair-holding devices comply with the standards in 18a(3)(d) below. Dreadlocks (unkempt, twisted, matted individual parts of hair) are prohibited in uniform or in civilian clothes on duty. Hair will not fall over the eyebrows or extend below the bottom go on of the collar at any time uring normal activity or when standing in formation. Long hair that falls naturally below the bottom edge of the collar, to include braids, will be neatly and inconspicuously fastened or pinned, Section 1-8 basically is explains the way a male and females nails hair make-up and facial hair should be. For a female their hair cannot touch their collar and can be only one color. And that one color that they have can only be a natural color such as blonde, brown, and auburn color which is a red color and black. Any other color that isnt any one of those colors are not authorized in the united states army.Make-up for a girl can only be a natural color. Like the color of their skin or if it looks natural the female soldier is allowed to wear it. But some exceptions are made for females when it comes to their ma-up. For instance a female can have eyeliner on if it is a permeant thing so if a female went to the tattoo polar and got black ink tattooed on her in the place of eyeliner it is excepted in the army as long as it looks presentable. Nails on a female cannot have an off the wall color her nails can only be a natural color such as white manicured nails or clear as long as it looks natural.Also A females nails can only be a fourth of an inch long past the tip of her finger tips. The last section I am going to do is paragraph 1-14. P aragraph 1-14 reads as follows according to the army regulations 670-1 114. Wear of jewelry a. Soldiers may wear a wristwatch, a wrist identification bracelet, and a total of cardinal rings (a wedding set is considered one ring) with Army uniforms, unless prohibited by the commander for safety or health reasons. Any jewelry soldiers wear must be conservative and in good taste.Identification bracelets are limited to medical alert bracelets and MIA/POW identification bracelets. Soldiers may wear only one item on each wrist. b. No jewelry, other than that described in paragraph 114a, above, will appear capable while wearing the uniform this includes watch chains, or similar items, and pens and pencils. The only authorized exceptions are religious items described in para 17b, above a conservative tie tack or tie clasp that male soldiers may wear with the black four-in-hand association and a pen or pencil that may appear undefendable on the hospital duty, food service, CVC, r flight uniforms. c. Body piercing. When on any Army installation or other places under Army control, soldiers may not attach, affix, or display objects, articles, jewelry, or ornamentation to or through the skin while they are in uniform, in civilian clothes on duty, or in civilian clothes off duty (this includes earrings for male soldiers). The only exception is for female soldiers, as indicated in paragraph 114d, below. (The term skin is not confined to outside(a) skin, but includes the tongue, lips, inside the mouth, and other surfaces of the body not readily visible. ) d.Females are authorized to wear prescribed earrings with the service, dress, and mess uniforms. (1) Earrings may be screw-on, clip-on, or post-type earrings, in gold, silver, white pearl, or diamond. The earrings will not exceed 6 mm or 1? 4 inch in diameter, and they must be unadorned and spherical. When worn, the earrings will fit snugly against the ear. Females may wear earrings only as a matched pair, with only one earring per ear lobe. (2) Females are not authorized to wear earrings with any class C (utility) uniform (BDU, hospital duty, food service, physical fitness, field, or organizational). 3) When on duty in civilian attire, female soldiers must comply with the specifications listed in (1) above when wearing earrings, unless otherwise authorized by the commander. When females are off duty, there are no restrictions on the wear of earrings. e. Ankle bracelets, necklaces (other than those described in para 17b), faddish (trendy) devices, medallions, amulets, and personal talismans or icons are not authorized for wear in any military uniform, or in civilian clothes on duty.