Monday, May 25, 2020
CHAPTER 1 The Problem and its Setting I. Introduction A. Background of the study Premarital sex, also known as adolescent sex or youthful sex is a sexual activity that is practiced by people who are not yet married. The term Ã¢â¬Å"premarital sexÃ¢â¬ is referred to any sexual relations among people prior to marriage. During the 1950s, Western societies consider men and women of age 21 as a legal basis for marriage, as such there were no considerations that one who had sex would not marry. Thus, the case was not clear whether sexual intercourses between individuals legally forbidden from marrying, or one uninterested in marrying could be considered premarital. Historically, premarital sex is considered as taboo by many culturesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦6. What do they think is the main reason for the gradual increase of premarital sex in the country? 7. How will the students contribute in spreading the knowledge about the effects of premarital sex? C. Significance of the Study This study will benefit the following: 1. Students Students will definitely be the main beneficiary for this study because they are expected to educate people about the study as it assess and measure their awareness and involvement on the different effects of premarital sex. Students will be able to determine the significance of the study. 2. Parents Parents will also benefit as they acquire additional knowledge brought by the study. The youth should be guided as they enter the stage of curiosity. Parents should be well-equipped with knowledge and explanations so that children of young ages are ensured of well-rounded and better future. 3. Women Majority of females are composed of young ones and teenagers. As a beneficiary of this study, concerns will be much on focus with the health of women. Generally speaking, the increase in awareness of people to the effects of premarital sex will ensure women of good health. There will be less transmuted diseases, reduced unwanted pregnancies, decreased number of abortions, and lowered death cases among women. 4. Government The last beneficiary will be the government. Being the great wall of our society, the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s roleShow MoreRelatedAncient Roman Civilization And Modern Times936 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe ancient Roman civilization had many enduring contributions to modern times. Many of the ancient structures survived the ravages of time. This leads the modern tourist to experience the ancient civilization through much of what Ancient RomeÃ¢â¬â¢s engineers enduring achievements, namely, temples, baths, aqueducts and roads (Temin, The economy of the early Roman Empire, 2006). Beyond the physical structures that survived the millennia, there are numerous modern cultural influences that are readilyRead MoreComparing and Contrasting the Role of Women during the Roman Empire and the Middle Ages1564 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesinvestigation will focus on the time period of 27 BC to 1485 BC and the places investigated will include Europe, more specifically Rome. This will be accomplished through a detailed examination of the role of women in the Roman Empire and the Middle Ages. In this investigation secondary and primary sources will be used. Word Count: 142 Part B: Summary of Evidence Women in Rome from 753 BC- 476 were treated with respect yet they struggled with keeping their identity. Roman women were either under the controlRead MoreGoddesses, Whores, Wives and Slaves: Classical Women of Antiquity1109 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGoddesses, Whores, Wives and Slaves: Classical Women of Antiquity The title of Sarah B. Pomeroys book on women in antiquity is a summary of the main categories of females in the literary imagination and the societies of ancient Greece and Rome, over a period of fifteen hundred years. Beginning with goddesses, Pomery retells some Greek myths, outlining the social functions of female Olympians Ã¢â¬â the goddesses are archetypical images of human females, as envisioned by males. Desirable characteristicsRead MoreRole of Women in Ancient Roman Society Essay1341 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe role of women in ancient Rome is not easily categorized; in some ways they were treated better than women in ancient Greece, but in other matters they were only allowed a very modest degree of rights and privileges. One thing that does seem clear is that as the city-state of Rome evolved from its early days into a more complex society; women were not always limited to secondary roles. In some areas of Roman society, women were allowed more freedoms than in many other ancient civilizations. Research: Read MoreWomens Roles in Ancient Greece and Rome Essay1138 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRoles in Ancient Greece and Rome Women have played important roles throughout history. They have been responsible for the rise and fall of nations, sustaining families, and have been the focal point of worship in ancient religions. Moving forward in history, womens roles have continually changed. Their status as matriarchs changed as the more advanced ancient civilizations rose. The patriarchal societies of ancient Greece and Rome viewed women differently from some societies of past eras. The studyRead MoreRoman Society : The Great And Vast Republic And Empire1722 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAt a size of approximately one million people Rome was the pinnacle of an age long lost. Yet the society created by these ancient people remains in the ever changing culture of today. Whether it be the creation of a republic, the political entity still used by many today, to the mannerisms of war still taught by military schools the world over, Rome gave more to the development of civilization than almost any society. Even the phras e, Ã¢â¬Å"When in Rome, do as the Romans doÃ¢â¬ is commonly used around theRead MoreThe Impacts of Marriages in VirgilÃ¢â¬â¢s The Aeneid849 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesduring the time of Augustus (27 BC), the first Emperor of Rome. After CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s death in 44BC, Augustus had the immense task of bringing Rome back to her original stability and unity that had been shattered during the Civil Wars and decline of her Republic. In the establishment of this empire Augustus had legislation encouraging marriage and the birth of children. Thus it makes sense that VirgilÃ¢â¬â¢s The Aeneid promoted the theme of marriage in a beneficial light. In Book 12 Aeneas was fated to marryRead MoreComparison Between Roman And Roman Civilization1622 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe history of Rome famous at the time, the encounter between Pope Leo the Great and Attila the Hun. Although the fresco has historical inaccuracies within it, the fresco as an allusion to classical civilization was clear. Although the actual event was at Mantua, the picture implied that the event occurred at Rome, perhaps to evoke more strong memories of Roman civilization. The event marked the end of the Hunnic invasion, and represented one of the last moments of pride in ancient Roman civilizationRead MoreGoddess, Whores, Wives and Slaves: Classical Women of Antiquity, written by Sarah B. Pomery1327 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Whores, Wives and Slaves: Classical Women of Antiquity, written by Sarah B. Pomery, focuses on the main categories of women in the literature and society of ancient Greece and Roman over a time period of fifteen hundred years. Pomery focuses on these roles and how they are significant in the development and structure of these great ancient civilizations. Her goal in writing this book was to expand upon her first book, entitled Goddesses as she discusses in the Preface of this book. She wanted toRead MoreAncient Greek And Roman Worlds1502 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWintersole ENGL 1302 4 November 2015 Greco-Roman Aesthetics The ancient Greek and Roman worlds made important contributions to both religion and philosophy, the study of the nature of truth, knowledge, and moral values. In fact, the word philosophy is Greek origin, containing the world s philia or to love with Sophia or wisdom. Two of the most powerful empires in the ancient world were Greece and Rome. In order to understand these two different yet similar worlds, you have to
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Nursing Practice Name Instructor Course Date Nursing Practice 1. How is health promotion defined? Wellness showcasing is the study of craft of helping people changes their way of life to move to a state of greatest wellbeing; the most extreme wellbeing protection scope health being the parity of physical, enthusiastic, open, religious, and discerning wellbeing (Kudzma, Mandle and Edelman, 2010). WHO depicts wellbeing showcasing as, the procedure of permitting people to build control over, and to enhance, their wellbeing. It goes past concentration on individual conduct towards a mixed bag of open and natural medicines. In the journals examined, Health advertising at: a) Primary level permits women in Australia to clear aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Outlines are patient and consideration supplier training and direction results, clinical recuperation framework, self improvement gatherings and gathering wellbeing and wellness results. In addition, wellbeing and wellness promoting undertakings, for example, enhancing and spurring work-related and security techniques in restorative focuses and playing staff wellbeing and wellness framework are considered to a great degree significant. All samples in the three productions examined, Nurses serve as champions for these people with whom they interact with including different specialists. Attendants impact these people demonstrating their movements and conduct. In light of what one watched, it is straightforward that the part displaying capacity is of essential vitality (Verlag, 2010). 4. Explain the implementation methods for health promotion that encompasses all areas of nursing. Nursing staff fathom the important part they play in pushing health and forestalling disease, the piece of examination in the learning of what is solid fit health wise. For this reason, nurses continually rouse healthier movements that advertise essential aversion of ailment. Preparatory applications are conveyed by an extent of group health associations, or individual doctors (often by general specialists, medical attendants and wellbeing proficient professionals), or through group associations (counting offer classes, for example, understudies against driving impaired, orShow MoreRelatedThe Nursing Practice Of Nursing851 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Nursing is a highly promising profession, yet healthcare institutions are having difficulty filling nursing positions. The nursing profession has evolved since its inception in the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s. Today, various healthcare facilities employ the professionals to assist with patient care. The nursing practice is now a well-paying profession. Despite this, AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s healthcare needs are creating a nursing shortage. Additionally, nurses who seek more challenges in the workplace are taking on roles as advancedRead MoreNursing : The Practice Of Nursing Essay2433 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagescenturies, nursing has undergone evolution. Through countless evolutions, many theorist contributed to what they would believe is important to nursing. Although, many theorist all have their own idea for nursing, they all share the same core idea: the desire to seek help for the patient. One of the ideas that theorist have the tendency to focus on is the practice of nursing. To this day nurses would adm it that preparation to becoming a nurse is a difficult task. Mostly because the practice of nursing consistsRead MoreNursing Theory Influences The Practice Of Nursing Practice1565 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction Nursing theory influences the practice of nursing in numerous ways that can have an important impact. Theory provides a framework to support and define nursing practice, support quality of patient care, and can be implemented in practice, to provide solutions to nursing practice problems. Applying theory to resolve nursing issues can be utilized in educational and research settings, direct patient care concerns, as well as in administration and management of nursing services. TheRead MoreThe Ethics Of Nursing Practice2165 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesNursing practice is established in customs, formal consideration and institutional arrangements. Over the previous decade, nurses have been tested to answer the inquiry, why do they do what they do or demonstrate the confirmation that nursing practices are successful (Wolf, 2012). The worry over results of consideration developed because of raising expense of think and inquiries concerning the quality and security our consideration gave. The developing interest for healthcare services to utilizeRead MoreNursing Theory And Nursing Practice Essay1181 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The purpose of this paper is to apply and explain nursing theory as a guide to help restructure and solve nursing practice issues by questioning, critical thinking about effectiveness of what nurses do. Application of theory by nurse leaders can influence patient satisfaction scores, patient-care delivery, and workflow. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s complex rapidly changing healthcare environment, healthcare system and hospitals are increasing their efforts to hire well-trained clinical professionalsRead MoreAdvanced Nursing Practice1223 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesinfluenced the development of advanced nursing practice. The discussion will include the political, economic, social, and technological influences that have contributed to the transformation from the traditional nursing role to the numerous exciting advanced level career opportunities achievable in nursing today. Dynamics that have shaped my own current advanced nursing role will be discussed and to conclude some thoughts on the future of advanced nursing practice. Defining the role of an advanced nurseRead MoreImportance Of Nursing Theory For Nursing Practice1383 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Importance of Nursing Theory Alvin McDonald Chamberlain College of Nursing NR501: Theoretical Basis for Advanced Nursing Practice September, 2016 The Importance of Nursing Theory Nursing theory is the skeleton on which the profession and practice of nursing rests. It is a construct of concepts specific to nursing that shapes and guides nursing practice. Nursing theory can guide nursing practice by giving a particular focus to nursing practice (Algase, 2015). Nursing theory provides theRead MoreCollaborative Nursing Practice1354 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCollaborative Nursing Practice Collaborative Care In order to improve the quality of patient care and ensure that the goals of care are being achieved, many settings are using the collaborative care delivery model. The collaborative Ã¢â¬Å"approach involves teams of health professionals working together to provide more coordinated and comprehensive care to clients,Ã¢â¬ (Kearney 2008). An interprofessional team can consist of nurses, physicians, care technologists nutritionists, counselorsRead MoreThe Cornerstone Of Nursing Practice1532 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAs far back as Florence Nightingale, professionalism and ethics have been the cornerstone of nursing practice. Ã¢â¬Å"Ethical values and practices are the foundation upon which moral actions in professional practice are basedÃ¢â¬ ( LaSala Bjarnason, 2010). Core professional nursing values (CPNV) are taught and instructed upon in nursing programs. This paper will explore and define the CPNV of altruism, autonomy, human dignity, integrity, and social justice. Althou gh these values are all individual characteristicsRead MorePhilosophy Of Nursing And Professional Nursing Practice1494 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Philosophy of Nursing Danielle Mabini NUR 3805 Professional Roles and Dimensions of Professional Nursing Practice Dr. Sandra Dotson-Kirn St. Johns River State College March 20, 2016 Philosophy of Nursing Philosophy is a set of ideas, values, and beliefs behind what a person does (Merriam- Webster Dictionary, 2015). All nurses have beliefs about what nursing is and is not. It is important to stay true to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal, moral, and ethical values at all times. Nurses are morally and ethically
Thursday, May 14, 2020
IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t the Price We Pay for Space Exploration a Little High? It is so much fun to watch how science fiction stories become reality Ã¢â¬â like laser guns and genetic engineering. Due to all the talks about ecology, more and more plots tell us about some kind of huge disasters that threaten humankind and make the bravest go find a new shelter in the outer space. If you take ecological threats seriously, they seem to be good reasons for space exploration. Humankind has already been out of the Earth. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s been over 50 years since then. And where have we gone so far? Not too far. The biggest use we are getting from space being explored is satellite communication, which was invented back during so called Ã¢â¬Å"arms raceÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â a long time ago. The path that space engineering has proceeded by during this half of century is too short if we compare it to mechanical engineering, for example: from first BenzÃ¢â¬â¢s bus with internal-combustion engine that could barely go 15mph to luxury cars of today. The reason I brought up this example is to prove that the amount of money that is spent on exploration of space is too big in comparison with the use it brings. As to the future dangers Ã¢â¬â we do not face them yet. And most of them seem to be just good examples of information manipulation. I have always stood for development of science. I think it is the driver of progress. There are so many spheres of our life that require rapid investigation and considerable money flows, that if compared to them, spending money on space exploration seems to be a waste.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
When is a search and seizure reasonable? John Vile clearly explains the origination of the Fourth Amendment and why it was created at the time of the creation of the Constitution, Ã ¨Like the amendment that precedes it, the Fourth Amendment was largely motivated by abuses of the British when they ruled America. They had used general warrants, or so-called writs of assistance, in tracking down customs violations in the colonies. A number of states subsequently adopted provisions against such warrants, and ratifying conventions in Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina all proposed amendments dealing with the subjectÃ ¨(Vile). At first, the forefathers of our country created the Fourth Amendment so that the British could not infringe on the colonists privacy. The thought of privacy within schools was not even something that was of concern at the time of the creation of the Constitution. As time has gone on, our country has made advancements that our founding fathers could never have foreseen, and has left our current government to interpret the Fourth Amendment themselves. The Fourth Amendment is detrimental when it comes to someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s privacy, especially in a school environment. It is valuable to students and teachers alike, without it teachers and staff members would be able to search a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s belongings without a reason or warrant. The Fourth Amendment is definitely viable in the school environment because it places regulations on what the staff in the schools can do withoutShow MoreRelatedThe Fourth Amendment And The Fourteenth Amendment987 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCitizens are protected by two constitutional amendments, under the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution, any search of a person or his premises (including a vehicle), and any seizure of tangible evidence, must be reasonable. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularlyRead MoreEssay on The Act of Search and Seizure in the United States978 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescrime, and the act of taking possession of this property,Ã¢â¬ also known as conducting a search and seizure. It is a necessary exercise in the ongoing pursuit of criminals. Search and seizures are used to produce evidence for the prosecution of alleged criminals. Protecting citizens from arbitrary searches, the Fourth Amendment of the Constitution is our right to limit and deny any unreasonable search and seizure. More often than not, police officers tend to take advantage of their authority by theRead MoreSearch and Seizure The purpose for the Fourth Amendment is to protect people from intrusion of the600 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesSearch and Seizure The purpose for the Fourth Amendment is to protect people from intrusion of the government in areas where they have a reasonable expectation of privacy. It prohibits searches and seizures unless they are conducted with probable cause and under reasonable circumstances. Ã¢â¬Å"The Fourth Amendment only protects against searches and seizures conducted by the government or pursuant to governmental direction. Surveillance and investigatory actions taken by strictly private persons, suchRead MoreThe Second Amendment Of United Nations Constitution1649 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages1. Fourth Amendment: Under the fourth amendment of United Nations constitution the people have a right to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures. Warrants would not be issued, unless based on a cause and supported by an oath or affirmation with detailed description of the place to be searched and the things or persons to be seized. The aim of this amendment is to protect the right to privacy of the people and freedom of intrusions fromRead MoreFourth Amendment : Search And Seizure963 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFourth Amendment: Search and Seizure The Fourth Amendment: Search and Seizure was passed by Congress on September 25, 1789 and ratified December 15, 1791. The Fourth Amendment provides, [t]he right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the personsRead MoreThe Legal Definition Of The Fourth Amendment1043 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe legal definition pertaining to a search and what authorizes a search has modified overtime due to decisions made in various court cases. Professor Rose at Stetson Law gives an overview of searches and seizures; the professor elaborates on the steps used when determining the legality of the Fourth Amendment. The six steps of the broad Fourth Amendment template include: who does the Amendment apply to, has there been a search or seizure/seizure, is there probable cause, did law enforcement needRead MoreInternet Security and an Invasion of Privacy1694 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMonitoring: Violations of the HackerÃ¢â¬â¢s Fundamental Right against Unreasonable Searches and Seizures The advent of technology marks the beginning of the digital era. It is an era which created a whole new world called the World Wide Web (WWW) whereas the people therein are called Ã¢â¬Å"netizensÃ¢â¬ . With the proliferation of the internet usage across the world, netizens are able to meet other netizens from the other side of the world, to share their thoughts, pictures, and videos, and to interact throughRead MoreStop And Frisk, Automobile Searches, And Border And Regulatory Searches1341 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThough the Fourth Amendment can lay the foundation of the laws of search and seizures and warrants, there are still many controversies as to what is classified as a violation of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s Fourth Amendment rights. However, the wording of the Fourth Amendment can be confusing as different individuals interpret privacy in various ways. Terms that may be interpreted differently in the Fourth Amendment can include: 1) right of privacy, 2) search, 3) seizure, 4) arre st, and 5) reasonableness. ThisRead MoreThe Fourth Amendment Of The United States Constitution1747 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution applies to a person and their home by providing protection against unreasonable seizures and searches. While it provides protection, not every search and seizure can be deemed unreasonable unless it is classified as per the law, by determining whether there was: a) the level of intrusion of the individuals Fourth Amendment, and b) whether or not it pertains to the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s interest, such as safety of the public. The right to protectionRead MoreThe Bill Of Rights1102 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe creations of the Bill of Rights, the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution were established to protect an individual, rights to property, and the limit the empowerment of the government. In this legal document, a person is guaranteed rights to freedoms that are often taken for granted such as, freedom of speech, religion, and bear arms; the right to refuse to self-incriminate. These rights are often seen as simple and inalienable more than less they are complex rules and exceptions
Can it be morally permissible to eat meat when plant-based foods are available? In this paper my aim is it to explain why this is morally wrong to do. One problem with eating meat is humans are putting animals in unnecessary pain. Another problem is that the majority of our environmental destruction on our planet is due to agriculture. Philosophers Peter Singer and Tom Regan, both back up this view with their own arguments. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t make sense to eat meat when there is no need to do so. Humans can live long, happy, and healthy lives on an all plant-based food diet. Sense this is correct, there is no need to continue to put these animals in pain that is no longer necessary for our survival. The treatment of these animals is inhumane and brutal. This treatment is equivalent to a person beating up your dog and killing it because they think it is fun. The only plausible reason humans eat meat is merely for the taste of it. Who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t like a nice juicy steak, but if you were to really know about what it took for that piece of meat to reach your dinner table and truly understand the pain and suffering, then you would never order that piece of steak again. The raising of cattle, pigs, chickens, turkeys, and more are the reason for most of the destruction of the environment on the planet. Over all farm land covers about 38% of the worlds land area. So humans can continue to eat meat millions of animals and insects are losing their homes and even going extinct so more farmShow MoreRelatedWhat Does A Vegetarian Diet?1591 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhat does a Ã¢â¬Å"vegetarian dietÃ¢â¬ mean? The term Ã¢â¬Å"vegetarianÃ¢â¬ is quite often misunderstood. Vegetarian simply means a plant-based diet. There are several kinds of vegetarian diets, defined by what types of foods are consumed. I for example am a Lacto-vegetarians which includes dairy products in their diet. Lacto-ovo- vegetarians also eat dairy products, eggs and some including me donÃ¢â¬â¢t eat fish either. My name is jenna and i will have been a vegetarian for three years this lent. Today. I will try toRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 PagesCommunication 239 The Focus on Accuracy 240 What Is Supportive Communication? 242 Coaching and Counseling 244 Coaching and Counseling Problems 245 Defensiveness and Disconfirmation 246 Principles of Supportive Communication 247 Supportive Communication Is Based on Congruence, Not Incongruence 247 Supportive Communication Is Descriptive, Not Evaluative 248 Supportive Communication Is Problem-oriented, Not Person-oriented 250 Supportive Communication Validates Rather than Invalidates Individuals 251 SupportiveRead MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words Ã |Ã 1056 PagesThis online teaching and learning environment integrates the entire digital textbook with the most effective instructor and student resources With WileyPLUS: Students achieve concept mastery in a rich, structured environment thatÃ¢â¬â¢s available 24/7 Instructors personalize and manage their course more effectively with assessment, assignments, grade tracking, and more manage time better study smarter save money From multiple study paths, to self-assessment, to a wealth of interactive visualRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesProcesses 25 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Outcomes 25 Summary and Implications for Managers 30 S A L Self-Assessment Library How Much Do I Know About Organizational Behavior? 4 Myth or Science? Ã¢â¬Å"Most Acts of Workplace Bullying Are Men Attacking WomenÃ¢â¬ 12 An Ethical Choice Can You Learn from Failure? 24 glOBalization! Does National Culture Affect Organizational Practices? 30 Point/Counterpoint Lost in Translation? 31 Questions for Review 32 Experiential Exercise Workforce Diversity 32 Ethical Dilemma Jekyll and Hyde 33 Case
Question: Write an essay onIntroduction to Oil and Gas Environment. Answer: Introduction The thesis statement focus on Gazporms management structure, the companys contributing to the local community.The Gazprom is one of the leading and renowned companies in oil and the gas across the globe. The company owns huge reserves, which gives them the status of being leader in the sector and having huge production of the natural gas which is nearly around 15%. In Russia, Gazprom is the largest in terms of gas production as they are providing 70% of the total supply and nearly 10 percent of the oil supply is taken over by them. They are not limited only with the production; even this group owns the largest gas shipping network across the globe. It covers the transportation covering the stretch of more than 161 thousand kilometers, catering to Russian and European market on a wider scale. Gazproms owns nearly half of the Russians gas processing business and nearly 15.5% of oil refining. This makes Gazprom as the dominant supplier due to the reason they cater maximum of the Russian customers of the gas market. Their operations are being spread with a network of nearly 1600 stations of fuel altogether in Russia, FSU and on Balkans. They are involved in generation of electricity as well by providing 17% electricity generation in Russia. The resources of natural gas available with Gazprom are among the worlds best resources. Since 1992, Gazproms has been approved by the Russian Federation Presidents Decree for the following commitments: Gazproms for providing good and decent gas supply to Russian Federation (Gazprom Team, 2015). Export of the gas within the state has as per the intergovernmental agreements. Build and finance the gas branches of high pressure for supply to rural areas. Helping other producers as well. Management The Gazprom management system works in alliance with the Russian Law. It works under the code of corporate Governance which are supported by the Russian Federal Securities Commission Panel of Directors Next is the level, the panel including all the directors of the company. They are meant for all the strategic management of the company, responsible to keep a check on the value of the company's share. They are completely managing all the executive bodies of the company by keeping a regular check on them and keenly observing their performance (The Gazprom Group, 2011). Board Management This comprises the top level of the company's executives, who are actually responsible for the operating business. The CEO chief executive officer of the company mainly functions in this category. He is the person, who is the Chairperson of the management board, who holds the complete authority. Audit Authority This administrative body is elected by the General Shareholders meet. The Audit commission has to continuously monitor complete business activities by keeping an eye on company's financial matters. The Audit commission has to regularly conduct the Audit in order to analyze the financial position of the company. Audit commission observes the internal matter very minutely and they check for any risk which may possibly occur because of any recent decision taken by the management. Audit commission are required to check for all legal matters of the company either in alliance with other companies, with Govt. or in other transactions, which are taking place within the company (RusEnergy agency, 2013). External Auditor The role of the external Auditor is to mainly audit companies, assess the financial decisions annually and to develop reporting in line and compliance with the Russian Accounting Standards (RSBU) and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The audit committee has to be approved by the General Shareholders meet, which is initiated by the panel of the board members (Gazprom Neft, 2016). The structure, responsibilities, organization committee, Gazprom Nefts management and regulatory bodies are being determined bythe Companys Corporate Charter and internal documents ofthe Company. Roles and responsibilities of the divisions of the company The Gazproms group of company holds a unified strategy which is focused on having strong and established leaders having a top position in the company and who are experienced enough to take the decision for the welfare of the company. The company has played in the global market and regular focuses on increasing their base across the globe in the oil market (Victor, 2008). In order to hold the same position in the global market, the company has taken various steps: - Upstream: Exploration The company Gazprom possesses unique mineral resources accumulated predominantly in Russia; the Groups share of natural gas accounts for around 17 % of global reserves and 72 % of Russian reserves. As of December 31, 2010, the Groups hydrocarbon reserves abroad were less than 1 % of the Groups reserves in Russia (categories A+B+C1 ). The department facilitates the required pre-project and project work to establish gas chemical and gas refining services in Eastern Siberia and Far East regions post liasioning with foreign partners. The upstream understand Creating, developing and then introducing new technology iscritical for attaining regular success ofevery business. That iswhy modernization innovation ispart ofthe fabric ofGazprom Neft. The exploration division focus on specialists primarily focuses and responsible for enhancing the efficiency ofoil production from depleted reservoirs inconventional areas, exploring new regions inYamal and Eastern Siberia along with Offshore exploration or development including inthe Arctic Region; With to enhance efficiency of exploration and to facilitate precise forecasting of the reservoir development. The Gazprom Exploration Team considers the following methods of demonstrating within the fields areas with the intricate permafrost circumstances which would possibly lead to issues related to construction and development; modernization expertise in forecasting development related to oil-and-gas bearing collector base on field modelling, which are Implementing international projects of exploration; Creating eccentric hydrocarbon reserves; Diminishing the impact onthe environment and enhancing energy efficiency. Downstream: Development and production The division is responsible to systematize supplementary geographical exploration, employment at Kirinsky, Vostochno-Odoptinsky, and Ayashsky block on the shelf of Sakhalin and Zapadno Kamchatsky shelf along with the subsoil Krasnoyarsk and Irkutsk region In order to enhance the efficiency of fields expansion inclusive of new gas production regions, the Group development comprises a technology of low temperature severance and refinement of hydrocarbons in gas condensate areas; a multi-site surveillance well design for concurrent monitoring of overstrain pressure in numerous development targets of multilayer oil-gas condensate fields; a expertise to create thin oil fringes under gas cap by the use of bilateral and multi-functional digs and initiation of the vertical oil displacement by the operational fluid and mainly responsible for exploring different models for gas production and field operation as a amalgamated thermal-and-hydraulic system along with piping and fittings specifically for the field underwater and land pipelines Bythe year 2025, more than50% ofthe Companys oil would beproduced by the use of new technology and method. Based onyear 2014 results, the % ofwells which have been drilled through the modern technology method was 40%. This ratio has beenrecorded for the Russian oil and gas sector. Inthe year 2014-2015, Gazprom Neft has been able to develop the code for enduring technical evolution inproduction and development. Gazprom Neft production Development specialists have identified 10core areas in the field of technological development, which would possibly create animpact onall the areas oil production process, from ecological exploration towardsdevelopment management. Anindulgence ofthe organizations new prospects and their growth potential iscritical for the potential growth. The operations associated with the development of the Groups oil reserves are consolidating within Gazprom Neft and are mostly accepted in the Yamalo-Nenets and Khanty-Mansi sovereign along with regions of Tomsk, Omsk, and Irkutsk regions Companys contribution to society Gazprom isaglobal energy companywhich focus onthe worldwide production, transportation and exploration inclusive of processing, sales of gas, condensate and oil. Gazprom views its operation to ensure aconsistent, well-organized and unbiased supply of thenatural gas, other energy resources and their imitative tothe consumers. The Russian government has made an agreement with the Gazprom for providing the gas to the Russian residents who are economically weak and doesnt get the gas meter installed at a reasonable price.The Gazprom follows the ethical way of working. The company works in full cooperation for the well being of the society. With all this, the company has the policy not to disturb the cultural tradition. Gazprom on whole believes in order to have effective functioning; a company should have a productive and strong cooperation with the local governing body and the local people in order to have smooth operations. This helps in developing strong alliances with the community w hich in turn will certainly lead to have favorable conditions in the healthy social environment and attaining companys success. The company manages to have one to one conversation with the local people, regarding the environmental safety issues and the company even discusses and explores various solutions regarding regional growth and development. The Gazprom is involved through social development in: Azprom for Children Supporting Cultural Projects Supporting Sports Trade Union Energy of Victories Gazprom intends to fulfill the commitment of keeping sustainable development as an essential component for retaining the competitive advantage and attaining leadership in the worlds energy market .On the grounds of Social development, the company has always kept Sustainable development and social responsibility as major key under their Nefts business strategy. Gazprom Neft comprehends and tried topreserve and balance the natural environment. The companys Neft branch is dedicatedly and constantly working torecover and progress in the area ofindustrial safety, environmental protection and health and safety standards. Inyear 2014, they have invested around RUB 3.8 billion inthe area of environmental protection. The company is also committed toensure the secure and protected creation oftheir products and subsequently, safeguarding the health and welfare of their workforce through implementation of Health safety policies in the organization as per Industrial modern era practices and in-line with the Industries regulations. Gazprom Neft endeavors for minimizing the pessimistic ecological impact ofoil production and refinement while making sure that their products fulfills the current high ecological standards. Biodiversity and ecosystems Energy saving Environmentally friendly fuel Efficient use ofAPG Reports Ratings Environmental Policy Energy saving concepts and programs Kyoto Protocol International activities Gazprom established that ithas been able toattain the high-quality results still with the low hydrocarbon prices. The Company has administered tomaintain thefast rapidity inimplementing the effective production programs. The company has increased our reserve base and boosts upthe production capacities and increased their gas exports and oil production volumes across Europe. The company has inveterate the financial sustainability oftheir trade business and has been able to maintain thework onlargescale projects. Conclusion The Gazprom has progressed at a constant rate; it has continuously achieved all the strategic goals. The worlds largest oil resources base and has well developed framework with the Gazprom. Because of this, the company has expanded well versed not only in complete Russia, but diversified their base in Europe and various Asian countries as well. With this, the company successfully fetched handful revenue by exporting its oil and other products. Major revenue of Gazprom is being generated by exporting gas to Europe, thus they have barged their major profit by selling them at nearly five times more than the price which is for the Russian people. Gazprom has their major focused on the way of doing business by giving importance to export of all the oil products. As Gazprom charge exorbitant from the customers, who are outside of Russia. Thus they are expanding the businesses to Europe and other countries at exorbitant prices (Smith, 2010). On the other hand, Gazprom is forced to supply a maximum of its product within the Russia because of its political leverage. Bibliography Gazprom Energoholding, 2013. 20122013 Sustainability Report by Generating Companies of Gazprom Energoholding, [Accessed 08 July 2016] Gazprom Neft, 2016. Board of directors, Available at: https://ir.gazprom-neft.com/corporate-governance/board-of-directors/ [Accessed 08 July 2016] Gazprom Team, 2015. Gazprom Joint Stock Company. [Online] Available at: https://www.gazpromquestions.ru/en/about/ [Accessed 08 July 2016] Miller, A., 2014. 2014 Sustainability report: Gazprom NEFT, Available at: https://www.gazprom-neft.com/annual-reports/2014/GPN_SR_2014_eng.pdf [Accessed 08 July 2016]Rouse, L., 2013. International Oil Company Risk in the Russian Arctic: Greenpeace, Available at: https://www.greenpeace.org.uk/sites/files/gpuk/RussianRoulette_August2013.pdf [Accessed 08 July 2016] RusEnergy agency, 2013. Gazprom Management: Structure and Personalities. Gazprom Management: Structure and Personalities.[Accessed 08 July 2016] Smith, K. C., 2010. Managing the Challenge of Russian Energy Policies: CSIS [Accessed 08 July 2016]The Gazprom Grup, 2011. Management Report OAO Gazprom, Available at: https://www.gazprom.com/f/posts/05/636836/gazprom-ifrs-management-report-en.pdf[Accessed 08 July 2016]Victor, N., 2008. Gazprom: Gas Giant Under Strain, Available at: https://pesd.fsi.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/WP71,_Nadja_Victor,_Gazprom,_13Jan08.pdf [Accessed 08 July 2016]
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
The Four Systems of the Bioecological Model of Human Development SOC 312 Instructor: Stacey Rose The Four Systems of the Bioecological Model of Human Development | | For many, the idea that biology and genetics influence human development is not a foreign concept; however it has become increasingly accepted that ecological systems also play and intricate role in this development. Ecological systems primarily focus on the interpersonal relationships one has with their environment. A childÃ¢â¬â¢s environment tremendously impacts how they learn, how they develop intellectually, cognitively, emotionally, and what their morals and values become. The bioecological model of human development that Urie Bronfenbrenner developed gives light to the fundamental impact that social interactions and environment have in human development. He describes four distinct systems that are the most influential: microsystems, mesosystems, exosystems, and macrosystems. BronfenbrennerÃ¢â¬â¢s theory proposes that the four types of environments all simultaneously influence an individual. He suggests that people cannot fully understand human development without considering how a person is influenced through each of these systems (Zaden, 2007). These environments create the continuity of change that extends throughout the course of a lifetime and the residual effects carry through the generations to come (Bronfenbrenner and Morris, 2007). The developing personÃ¢â¬â¢s interactions between their microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem unveil the person they will become. The first system that influences development is the microsystem. The microsystem refers to the interaction and relationship that the individual has with significant figures in their life such as, family, peers, school, and the community (Berns, 2010). This systemÃ¢â¬â¢s interactions are in a close setting of their immediate environment and would be considered the most influential system of the developing human. The microsystem is the most influential system because the child has direct interaction with these individuals; that interaction occurs on a consistent basis over an extended period of time (Brofenbrenner, 2004). Family is the most significant relationship of the microsystem; they play an intricate part in the ecological human development. The most time is spent at home with the family; they provide shelter and safety, and also provide emotional support for the child. The parent for example, interacts with the child on a daily basis, they provide a safe and healthy relationship and an environment for them to grow and prosper. The way the parent plays with the child, teaches them, and communicates with them has a lot of influence on their development. The parenting style a child receives paves the way in their ability to communicate with others, their self-esteem, and the attitude and behaviors they exude. The main parenting styles are authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and non-involved. The authoritarian parent is strict and demanding; this creates a child that grows up to behave withdrawn, fearful, and distrustful of others. On the opposite end of the spectrum is the permissive parent. The child raised in a permissive household is more likely to be aggressive, impulsive, and have little self-reliance. The healthy balance between the two styles is the authoritative parent who raises a content, cooperative, and self-reliant child (Berns, 2010). The parent gives the child the ability to create secure attachments with others and to have a healthy and positive disposition. The emotional connectivity of this relationship is a direct reflection of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to connect and communicate with all other systems. Parenting styles are not the only ways that family can influence development; family structure also has a great impact. The nuclear family consists of a mom, a dad, and the children, but not all households are structured this way. Divorce is an unfortunate reality in this day and age and the adaptation plays a large role for the child. Not only does the child not get to live in a household that has both parents which provides a healthy surrounding and assures the child of love, but they may have to listen to the consequences of how each parent deals with the divorce itself. Counseling, mediation, custody battles, and fighting are all situations that the child may be surrounded by. The financial consequences will affect the family and the child would not live in the same lifestyle as they would if both parents were together because the income would be cut in half. Peers, community, and schools also affect the child. The peer groups help the child gain independence and discover their sense of self. Negative experiences with peers such as bullying can hurt the childÃ¢â¬â¢s self-esteem, affect how they interact with their others, and their ability to communicate and socialize with their peers with ease. School is another very important relationship. This gives the child a chance to learn the fundamentals needed as an adult and to help them develop different skills and appropriate behavior. Every child learns differently; they may be an auditory, visual, spatial, or kinesthetic learner. It is the teacher and schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility to discover this and take the best course of action to implement and teaching style that works best for the child. The second system that influences development is the mesosystem. Mesosystems may be described a links in a chain. They consist of linkages and interrelationships that exist between two or more of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s microsystems. These interrelationships involve a variety of settings that the child is immersed in; the influences that Ã¢â¬Å"bind us togetherÃ¢â¬ (Feldman, 2008). Examples of this system may be the linkage between family and peers, family and school, school and community, and so on. Schooling is the perfect example of the mesosystems linkage between family and school. The more involved the parent is with the childÃ¢â¬â¢s school, increases the likelihood of that child excelling in school, receiving higher grades, and attending college in the future. The involvement that the family has with the childÃ¢â¬â¢s learning before they enter school creates a positive attitude towards their future learning. When it comes to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with school, the more perceptive that the family and teachers are in their learning with affect their educational experience. They will learn how to complete tasks, problem solve, and understand rewards and consequences. There is also an important linkage between school and the community. Higher funded schools have more resources available to students; these resources extend the learning process. More books, informative television programs and movies, supplies, crafts, and the ability to go on field trips may provide a more stimulating environment and positive outlook on a childÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement and learning at school. Community support and donations can help increase learning in the classroom. The exosystem is the third system of BronfenbrennerÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of human development. These influences are indirect; the child itself is not an active participant, however it does have an impact on an active member of their microsystem. This may consist of the parentÃ¢â¬â¢s career or financial situation, political systems, social support networks, etcetera. As stated above, exosystems have an indirect affect on the child through career, their socioeconomic status, or the government. A parentÃ¢â¬â¢s socioeconomic status affects the child because they may not have the means to purchase educational materials or live in a nice home, if they have a home at all. Children born into poverty statistically have lower self-esteem, are less likely to excel in school or are more likely to drop out, and they are more susceptible to violence and crime. A parentÃ¢â¬â¢s job may also influence a child indirectly. A parent that has to travel a lot for work or stay late hours must place their child in non-parental child care. Different forms of this non-parental care will affect that child differently. There are child care centers, family day cares, and in-home care of a nanny that may be used to watch over the children. The accreditations are different for each type, and there are different programs, such as health, nutrition, and learning programs. Although there are many different options that the family has when they do not have the ability to stay at home with the child, but it is still no substitute for being cared for by their parent. Although sometimes a parent has no choice but to place their child in a day care program, there can be some developmental consequences to this. The child will be able to socialize with peers more easily, but they tend to be less cooperative and unresponsive with adults. The longer the child stays in non-parental care, the more likely they are to develop insecure attachments, are at risk for problems with emotions and in behavior. They are also more likely to be aggressive and defiant. The final system involved is the macrosystem. This system is societal and has a larger context involved in culture. This type of system influences the developing child in a much broader context; the beliefs of the family and their lifestyle, education, religion, and mass media. What society places as the social norms, expected roles, and what a relationship is supposed to look like. Macrosystem influences come from cultural views in society. Views of roles, such as gender roles, have a set of associated behaviors that are expected in that individual. A boy must be a strong provider and shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t cry, or a girl should be a nurturer and domesticated are examples of these gender roles inflicted on society. Different values and lifestyle are also a large influence to that child. Believing in the necessity of owning a large home, having expensive cars, or that as adults, they need to be married with a white picket fence and 2. children. Morals and values stem from the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs and religious law; although sometimes the religious laws coincide with federal. Religions such as Catholicism, Lutheranism, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Atheism, are all extremely different from one another and go along a different belief system with different sets of values which influence the individual. Children that grow up believing in some form of Christianity may have di fferent values than a child that grew up in an Atheist household. Mass media and culture are intertwined, but the influence of media is widespread and comes in a variety of forms; screen media, print media, audio media, and interactive media. Media influences Ã¢â¬Å"value, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviorÃ¢â¬ explains Berns (2010, pg 321). At least one form of media can be found basically anywhere and is used to communicate and spread information to a large group of people simultaneously. Screen media that comes in television form spreads so quickly and easily influences young and impressionable minds. In some respects the exposure can be a good thing; it is mentally stimulating, can be educational and useful in a classroom to help students understand information in a different way. Programs for younger children such as Ã¢â¬Å"Dora the ExplorerÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Blues CluesÃ¢â¬ are a great way to teach young children colors, numbers, mathematics, and linguistics. Unfortunately there are downsides to this. Not all programs are suitable for young children; they may contain graphic violence, foul language, and sexually explicit material that is inappropriate for this age group. This information can ingrain the idea of what life Ã¢â¬Å"shouldÃ¢â¬ be like or how the child Ã¢â¬Å"shouldÃ¢â¬ behave, this sets up negative associations and roles. Violent and graphic material could result in negative behaviors such as aggression or bullying others, it may also cause the childÃ¢â¬â¢s imagination to run wild which may be scary, exciting, or intimidating for the child. Too much time in front of the television, or focused on any type of media really, can take away from time spent with the family and engaging in family activities, or it can also affect physical activity. Print media is found in books, newspapers, magazines, and articles. Print media is beneficial because it enhances language and reading skills, it helps with comprehension, and overall cognitive development. Children may understand the sense of who they are because of all the stories and tales they read. A downside to this is that the child may confuse negative actions and material with reality and fantasy. Just as with screen media, print, audio, and interactive media instill the ideas behind different stereotypes; this can be a major concern for problems in the future and self-esteem. Overall between all forms of media there are positives and negatives. They increase cognitive functioning and development, but children are impressionable and graphically violent and sexually explicit material is not good for young children and should be monitored by the parent. It is now apparent that ecological systems affect development. Urie Bronfenbrenner was correct in his theory of the bioecological model of human development. There is significant data to show how influential the four systems influence a child. The microsystem consists of close intimate relationships of those in direct contact with the child; they are involved on a consistent basis and appear to be the most influential relationship. Family, peers, school, and the community are all examples of a microsystem. They all have a large impact on the childÃ¢â¬â¢s socialization skills. Because a child spends so much time with their parents, this is the foundation for success. Teaching their children early what behaviors are acceptable or not, having a comforting and balanced parenting style will really help the child be cooperative, self-reliant, and content. Placing a strong focus on the importance of academics will help the child to succeed in school, also choosing the correct school to help the student learning in an environment suitable for their needs. Peers have a massive impact on the childÃ¢â¬â¢s communication and interaction with others so itÃ¢â¬â¢s important that the parent keep positive influences around that child. The microsystem is the primary system of influence so keeping secure, positive, healthy relationships will help the childÃ¢â¬â¢s development as they begin to feel the effects of the other systems. Like the links in a chain, the mesosystem combines the importance of the impact that the microsystems have on each other. Just as school and family influence a child, the relationships between the two systems also have a direct impact on the child. This does not only consist of the two relationships, but all relationships in the microsystem. The indirect affect of the exosystem, such as the stressors of a parentÃ¢â¬â¢s career, will have its own impact. Long hours at the job can result in the child being enrolled in some sort of non-parental child care. The type of care provided could benefit the child in their education and learning skills, but may also have a negative impact on their emotional comfort and attachment caused by the lack of the parent being around. Finally, the macrosystem is the combination of culture, religion, mass media, and other influences that are widespread. Mass media has many benefits to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s development. Media is mentally stimulating, it can increase imagination, and teach the child different skills such as language, communication, mathematics, colors, and other skills. Parents do need to monitor the media that a child does interact with. The graphic violence and sexually explicit material can be damaging for young and influential minds. They can create different stereotypes that can affect the way the child socializing with others, or their sense of self. The more time spent around different forms of media can take away from the quality time spent with the family, and can decrease the amount of physical activity for the child. Overall, the four different systems involved in BronfenbrennerÃ¢â¬â¢s bioecological model of human development massively impact the socialization and cognitive development of a child. References Berns, R. M. (2010).